Mouse before Moose No. 419 (PDF and text version)
Message from Clarence Simonsen
The 419-nose-art has found a new home at Cold Lake. The photos attached are in the Public Museum.
Courtesy Cold Lake Air Force Museum
Courtesy Cold Lake Air Force Museum
Courtesy Cold Lake Air Force Museum
Courtesy Cold Lake Air Force Museum
Research by Clarence Simonsen
Dedicated to Ley Kenyon, this is my serious effort to document and preserve on original WWII RCAF aircraft skin, his forgotten “Canadian” No. 419 [Moose] Squadron nose art, where he painted the Mouse before the Moose.
RCAF original caption
Equalling the record for a Halifax bomber, “V” for “Vic” from the Moose squadron of the R.C.A.F. Bomber Group in England, recently completed its 48th operational sorite over enemy territory with an attack on the German capital of Berlin. In the above picture is the picturesque design indicating 47 trips over enemy territory. it shows one of the characters in the comic section heaving bombs out of a silk hat. On its final trip “V” for “Vic” was piloted by WO2 R.G. Herbert.
Link to the PDF below.
Text version with all the images
No. 419 Sqn.
RCAF 1942 -1944.
“The Mouse before the Moose”
The forgotten “Canadian” nose art painted by British Rear Gunner R.A.F. #112179 – P/O B. Ley Kenyon.
In 1984, the author was a volunteer with HMCS Drumheller Naval Reserve, involved in research, lectures and taking photos for local Navy Cadet events. In February 1984, [HMCS Drumheller Cadets] were the guests of CFB Cold Lake, Alberta, and we spent six special days living, learning, and touring the large Canadian Air Force training base. To my surprise, there was very little WWII aviation nose art history connected with No. 419 [Moose] Squadron in their base Archives, or at least that is what I was told. Three years later, I found myself conducting No. 419 [Moose] Squadron Nose Art research and that is how I made contact with WWII veteran RCAF pilot Jack McIntosh, from Calgary, Alberta.
Jack McIntosh was born in the town of Medicine Hat, Alberta, on 26 June 1922, his Scottish father was a member of the local Police Department, and played the bagpipes. Jack joined the local Militia [South Alberta Regiment] in the summer of 1938, followed by three weeks Army summer camp being held on the Sarcee military training area, located on the south western outskirts of the City of Calgary. As Canada went to war, Jack was hired by the Canadian Imperial Bank of Canada, but continued his Militia training, reaching the rank of a qualified infantry Sergeant in March 1941. At age nineteen, Jack decided to enlist and joined the RCAF on 30 June 1941, posted overseas on 15 April 1942, a new pilot in No. 419 Squadron, where he flew his first 2nd Dicky operation on 13 February 1943. After eighteen months of training, twenty-year-old pilot Jack McIntosh became the leader of his five or six man RCAF aircrew, and they were all older in age than their boss.
Jack explained on his third operation, 27 February 1942, they were shot up very badly and one German night fighter killed two of his aircrew [Sgt. A.D. Grogan, Flight Eng. and rear gunner Sgt. G.I. Dunbar] and wounded a third, [Sgt. A. Mellin], they were set on fire and he made a crash landing back at base. Jack continued: stating he was flying Halifax Mk. II DT619, the bomber of S/L D.Clark, [New Zealand] which was painted with a “Kiwi Bird on a Bomb” by aircrew rear gunner P/O Ley Kenyon, the squadron artist. That was the first time I heard the name of the 419 squadron artist, but Jack knew little about him, other than he pocessed great talent and even drew caracutures of the squadron senior officers.
On 6 May 1942, Jack and his crew air tested a new Halifax B. Mk. II Special serial JD114, and this became their aircraft code VR-O. After flying six operations, the crew decided to name their bomber and pilot Jack was asked to select the new name. He picked his home town of Medicine Hat, Alberta. The squadron artist then painted Walt Disney’s Goofy picking bombs from a hat which were dropped over Germany, and after each operation a new bomb was added. Jack never met or learned the name of the nose artist, however he believ it was Ley Kenyon, and for historical records, I believe that is correct. This drawing of Halifax JD114 proudly hung in the home of Jack McIntosh, and I snapped an image.
Over the next years I would often visit Jack and his wife Jan, where a great amount of Moose squadron information was obtained for my new upcoming book on RCAF Nose Art. I also painted the replica nose art of “Medicine Hat” which were donated to two RCAF aviation museum’s [Trenton, Ontario, and Nanton, Alberta] and one for the original pilot Jack McIntosh.
This scale replica painting on original Halifax skin from NA337, was donated to Karl Kjarsgaard, Vice-president of “The Halifax Aircraft Association” in 1998, original art was painted by P/O Ley Kenyon in July 1943. Location of nose art painting today unknown, as these panels intended for RCAF Trenton, Ontario, museum display, were given away to WWII RCAF senior veterans belonging to the Halifax Aircraft Association. This author nose art research involving No. 419 Squadron in fact began ten years earlier after my week long visit to CFB Cold Lake, Alberta.
In July 1988, No. 419 [Moose] Squadron “Canada-wide” two-day reunion was being held at Calgary, Alberta, and Jack McIntosh invited me as his guest. I can fondly recall standing beside Jack in the then Canadian Army Officer’s Mess special log building, constructed in the tree covered area on the Sarcee military training area. Jack proudly explained, this was where his first Army training began back in 1938, when he was only sixteen years of age. At this reunion, Jack introduced me to a very special “unofficial” RCAF Moose squadron historian, Mr. Arthur Herbert Vincent Elmer, known to all as Vince. Vince displayed five large No. 419 photo albums from his vast research collection, and they contained many new 419 early Halifax nose art images. Vince gave his permission, allowing me to make 35 mm copies and record the information attached with each photo in his historical special Moose Squadron Nose Art collection. Today his vast historical collection is part of the No. 419 [Moose] Squadron archives stored at CFB Cold Lake, Alberta. The major part of my Ley Kenyon nose art collection came from the Vince Elmer collection, later painted as replica nose art on original WWII RCAF aircraft skins, and published here for the first time.
This WWII British map pin-points over 95 RAF airfields in use during the Second World War. No. 419 Squadron, RCAF’s third Bomber Squadron was born at Mildenhall, Suffolk, England, [yellow #70] on 15 December 1941.
Canadian Wing Commander J. [Moose] Fulton, [RAF/RCAF] DFC, assumed official duties of No. 419 Squadron on 21st December 1941, arriving from RAF Farnborough, England.
The first two Vickers Wellington Mk. IC aircraft arrived on the airfield on 4 January 1942, and eight were on strength five days later. The fifteen original aircraft serial numbers are as follows: A serial Z1145, B – X9748, C – Z1067, D – Z9920, E – Z1146 and Z8967, F – Z1053, G – Z9894, H – Z8981, N – Z9757, O – Z1083, P – Z1077, Q – Z1095 and Z1572, S – DV509.
The first operation to Best was flown on 11 January 1942, two Wellington aircraft serial X9748 and Z1145, followed on 15th of the month to bomb Hamburg, Germany, the same two Wellington bombers took part and Wellington “A” Z1145 crashed in the sea off Spurn Head. The first four No. 419 Squadron airmen missing in action.
From 1 to 5 February, No. 419 Squadron was grounded due to wet snowy weather, then on 6 February, four Wellington aircraft bombed Brest and all returned safely. S/L F.W.S. Turner and his crew flew Wellington Mk. IC on the raid, serial Z8981, coded VR-H, the other three were A – Z1091, N – Z9757, and P – Z1077.
L to R – 9 February 1942, S/L F.W.S. Turner, P/O K.E. Hobson, F/Sgt G.P. Fowler, F/Sgt. C.A. Robson, F/Sgt. N.G. Arthur, and F/Sgt. H.T. Dell. [RCAF Public Relations photo #PL7096] They would fly this same Wellington bomber to bomb Paris on 3 March 1942.
This well published image of No. 419 Squadron Wellington Mk. IC, [Type 423] covered conversion aircraft, serial Z1572, VR-Q, was one of four taken on charge 14 February 1942. No. 419 Squadron was on stand down due to wet snowy weather from 1 to 5 of February, and the first new Wellington Mk. III bombers began to arrive on 13 Feb. 1942. Four Wellington Mk. IC [type 432], arrived on 14 February, including VR-Q seen above, transferred from No. 75 New Zealand Squadron. On 21 February 1942, the squadron became non-operational and intensive training began for conversion to the Wellington Mk. III aircraft. They had on charge Wellington Mk. III – three, Wellington Mk. IC – fifteen, and Wellington Mk. IC [type 423] – four. RCAF [Canadian] aircrew officers – thirteen, RCAF other ranks aircrew – eighty-five, RAF aircrew officers – seven and other ranks RAF – eleven. On 10 March 1942, W/C J. Fulton made a hand written entry in the squadron Daily Dairy, “It appears that Wellington IC’s were last used by 419 squadron on 10-3-42.” For some reason Z1572, VR-Q, remained on charge and flew twenty operations from 30 May 42 until late November, then went to No. 427 Squadron. She flew until April 1945, training aircrews at No. 16 O.T.U.
On 26 March 42, Flight Lt. D.L. Wolf assumed command of “B” Flight in No. 419 Squadron. A new Canadian squadron “nose art” era was about to begin, but nobody realized what was about to take place.
In January 1942, F/Lt. D.L. Wolfe was the new Captain of four sprog aircrew fresh from operational schooling at a Heavy Conversion Unit, and now their months of training and new-found aviation skills would be put to the real test. It was common knowledge their odds of survival were not very good, however the overall RCAF casualty figures were not posted and became a heavily guarded secret until late in 1944. Before a sprog aircrew were permitted to fly operations their skipper had to fly on one or more operation trips as “Second Dicky.” This was a British RAF term from the WWI days when bombers had two pilots and the co-pilot was called Second Dickey.
F/Lt. Wolf flew Second Dickey to Captain S/L Turner on 21 January 1942, and three of his aircrew Sgt. Pearce, Sgt. Goodwin, and Sgt. Morrison came along on their first combat operation. If the first operation was uneventful, no German fighter attacks, burning aircraft exploding in the air, or aircrew death, the C.O. would send the sprog crew on another introductory sortie over France or Germany. On 28 January 42, F/Lt. Wolfe [Second Pilot] and crew flew their second operational trip to Boulogne, Z1053 came home on one engine, an outstanding quality other twin-engine aircraft could not manage to do.
9 February 1942, image shows RCAF ground crew placing 303 cal. guns in Wellington Z1053, code VR-F, flown by F/Lt. Wolf that night, 10 February 1942. P/O Ley Kenyon flew his first RCAF operation in Wellington Z1053, 8 March 1942. [Vince Elmer collection 1988]
Bad weather delayed flying operations in February, 1-5 and again on 7-9 of the month, wet snow, clouds, and rain. The Wolfe crew flew Wellington Z1053 “F” on 10 February 1942, [above] then the remainder of the month was used for conversion flight training to the Wellington Mk. III which began arriving on 13 February. On 3 March 42, F/Lt. Wolfe and crew flew Z1053 “F” for the very last time, and conversion training continued. On 5 March, a new fair haired, slim, soft-spoken British air-gunner reported to No. 419 Squadron, P/O Bennett Ley Kenyon, RAF #112175. Born on 28 May 1913, in Kensington Church Street, above the family owned undertaking business, he was educated at Marylebone Grammar School. He loved the underwater life, swimming, snorkeling, photography, and painting in watercolors. Ley attended art schools in London and Paris, specialising in water colours, and even taught his favorite subject, water color design and shading. He was very mild mannered and while he fully understood his many talents, to others Ley appeared as being on the shy side. With the outbreak of war in September 1939, Ley volunteered for service in submarines of the Royal Navy, then was informed to go home and wait. Ley was called up as a lorry driver in the R.A.F. in 1940, re-mustered to Air Gunner in March 1941, and graduated with a commission of Pilot/Officer in October 1941. He was posted to RCAF Canadian No. 419 Squadron in late April 1942, flying his first operation 8 March, as rear gunner for F/Sgt. Fawcett, in Wellington Z1053.
Painted on original 1938 RCAF skin fabric [17” by 21”] from Fleet Fawn 7C, serial 123, RCAF #264, trained RCAF pilots at Camp Borden, 1939-1945.
On 10 March, Kenyon flew with Sgt. Foy in Wellington Z1077 [2nd Operation], and on the 25 March with F/Sgt. Shannon, in Wellington X3703 . On 26 March, Flight Lieutenant D.L. Wolfe assumed command of “B” flight in No. 419 Squadron, and he assigned the new British gunner to his own aircrew, flying 28 March 42, in Wellington X3467 [4th Operation].
Op. # Date Pilot Aircraft Serial
5. 8 April 42 S/L Wolfe [promoted] Wellington X3711 “R”
6. 10 April 42 S/L Wolfe X3711
7. 12 April 42 S/L Wolfe X3711
8. 14 April 42 S/L Wolfe X3711
9. 22 April 42 S/L Wolfe X3711
10. 23 April 42 S/L Wolfe X3703 “S”
11. 28 April 42 W/C Fulton X3711 “R”
12. 7 May 42 S/L Wolfe X3486 “U”
Wellington X3486, VR-U, most likely painted with Donald Duck nose art in April 1942.
13. 8/9 May 42 P/O Cavaghan X3715 “G”
14. 17 May 42 S/L Wolfe X3360 “R”
15. 29 May 42 S/L Wolfe X3360
16. 30 May 42 S/L Wolfe X3404
17. 1 June 42 S/L Wolfe X3360
18. 2 June 42 S/L Wolfe X3360
19. 3 June 42 S/L Wolfe X3360
20. 8 June 42 S/L Wolfe X3360
21. 16 June 42 S/L Wolf X3360
22. 25 June 42 S/L Wolfe X3360
23. 2 July 42 S/L Wolfe X3360
24. 6/7 July 42 S/L Wolfe X3360
25. 13 July 42 S/L Wolfe X3360 “R”
On 1 August 1942, No. 419 was ordered to stand-down, and prepare for the movement of the complete squadron.
12 August 1942 from No. 3 Group, at Mildenhall, Suffolk, to No. 4 Group, Leeming, Yorkshire, 13 August to 17 August. Then on 18 August they moved to Topcliffe, Yorkshire, until 30 September, then on to Croft, Yorkshire, 1 October 1942 until 9 November 1942.
26. 13 October 1942 W/C M.M. Fleming DFC X3659 “B”
W/C J. Fulton was killed in action 28 July 1942, [Wellington X3488, “H”] replaced by W/C A.P. Walsh, 5 August to 2 September 1942, killed in action. W/C M.M. Fleming assumed command on 8 September 1942 until 8 October 1942. Rear gunner Ley Kenyon flew Operation #11 with W/C Fulton and his #26 Operation with W/C M. M. Fleming.
Wing Commander John “Moose” Fulton, DFC, 1942, age twenty-nine.
W/C Fulton failed to return on 28 July 1942, Wellington X3488 “H” and his last message was – “Fighters wounded 500.” The radio fix was ten miles of the Frisian Islands, and this German drawing gives some idea of the last moments of W/C Fulton and his crew.
The RCAF soon discovered that his artistic talents made Ley Kenyon an exceptionally good rear-gunner, able to recognise enemy aircraft in a split second. In August 1942, he was promoted to “Gunnery Leader” teaching aircraft recognition, gunnery instruction, and evasive tactics for escape from Germany if aircrews were shot down. Before going on combat operational squadron flights, sprog aircrews flew in various exercises designed to prepare them for the realities of operational flying. These operations were called “Bulls-eye” and took place over large British cities, where they learned how to avoid searchlights and night fighters. These crews also flew “Nickels” which required them to find a target over France, and sometimes Germany, then drop night leaflets. Other crews in training took part in minor raids, designed to take the German night fighters away from the main bombers force. These operational training flights were just as dangerous, sometimes even worse than the operational operations, as these new ‘sprog’ training crews had no combat flying experience. My Calgary friend pilot Jack McIntosh related how he attended eleven funerals in two weeks of his operational training. RAF Bomber Command did not count these training operational deaths in their causality total, a chilling fact in the cat and mouse game of war, never telling the aircrews or public the whole truth. Gunnery leader P/O Ley Kenyon survived fourteen of these training sorties which were never counted as combat operations. During his own spare hours, Ley began to paint large Walt Disney nose art images on the No. 419 Wellington bomber nose sections.
On 10 November 1942, No. 419 Squadron moved to their final base at Middleton St. George, Durham, England.
This Vickers Wellington Mk. III, code VR-M, is being serviced for an operation in late November 1942, at Middleton St. George. [RCAF PL7091]
The ground crew are L to R: LAC James Gardiner, Lac Fred Fitzhugh, LAC Fred Scott and unknown RAF. The Ley Kenyon nose art of Mickey Mouse stood for the aircraft call sign, “M for Mickey or Mouse” Note large code letter “M” painted on nose, serial unknown. [Vince Elmer image 1988]
This Wellington bomber could be serial X9757, X9874, X9920, Z1085, or Z1085, which had no known assigned code letters flying with No. 419 Squadron. Nose art artist was British RAF rear gunner P/O Ley Kenyon.
Replica scale nose art painting of VR-M [M for Mouse], correct colors unknown.
Wellington Mk. III, serial X3486 flew her first operation on 25 March 1942, F/Sgt. Elliot, 28 March, F/Sgt. Elliot, 5 April F/Sgt. Swanson, then 8 and 12 April F/Sgt. Elliot. It appears the Donald Duck art was possibly painted for the crew of F/Sgt. Elliot.
Flight/Sgt. William Chester McGuffin, J15712, DFC, came from Calgary, Alberta, flying his first operation as Second Dickey with F/Sgt. Dutton on 2 May 1942, in Wellington Mk. III, X3486, VR-C, decorated with Donald Duck nose art by P/O Ley Kenyon. The bomber code letter was changed to “U” on 8 April. This was the sixth operation for the Wellington bomber and the above photo was taken 2 May 42, at Mildenhall, Suffolk, England. [Vince Elmer collection]
His second operation was flown in the same Wellington Mk. III, serial X3486, and he would survive his first tour of thirty operations. S/L William McGuffin was nearly finished his second tour, 54 trips, when he was killed in a No. 419 [Moose] Lancaster on 23 October 1944, he was 22 years of age.
It appears this Donald Duck nose art might be the very first painted [April 1942] by RAF rear-gunner P/O Ley Kenyon who arrived at No. 419 Squadron, Mildenhall, Suffolk, on 5 March 1942. The aircrew of S/L Wolfe, with rear gunner nose artist Ley Kenyon flew this bomber [he painted] on 7 May 1942, their 12th Operation, the 9th Operation for the Wellington bomber. The use of Donald Duck was not just another Walt Disney cartoon choice, but closely reflected the Canadian and British spirit of the war in 1942. His anger, desperation, belligerent nature, and red faced aggression made Donald the number one choice in WWII aircraft nose art. Wellington VR-U survived a total of fourteen operations, X3486 went missing on 5/6 June 1942, F/Sgt. Dutton, bombing Essen, Germany. F/Sgt. Joseph Mervyn Dutton R60552 was from Calgary, Alberta, flying his thirteenth operation, age 23 years, his aircrew have no known grave. This replica painting on original WWII Norseman aircraft skin displays how RCAF nose art can be used as a memorial to a long lost Canadian aircrew from the past, rather than just a list of names on a cold marble wall in England.
W/C John [Moose] Fulton, 37095, began his wartime career with RAF No. 99 Squadron flying Wellington aircraft. He was flying his second tour of operations, his 66th on 28/29 July 1942, when his aircraft X3488 “H” was reported missing in action, he was twenty-nine years old. W/C Fulton has no known grave and his name is inscribed on the Runnymede War Memorial, Englefield Green, Egham, Surrey, England.
From August 1942, onwards the squadron began to unofficially use the name “Moose” derived from the nickname of their first squadron commander W.C John [Moose] Fulton. In January 1943, the City of Kamloops, British Columbia, adopted No. 419 “Moose” Squadron as a gesture of commemoration of their native son. In late August 1943, the unit badge and motto [Beware of the Moose] were designed [Ley Kenyon] and submitted for official Chester Herald approval.
The last three Wellington Mk. III aircraft, serial X3659 “B”, BK364 and K3390 flew on 6 November 1942, and the next day the squadron was ordered on “Stand Down” and operations creased. The Squadron prepared for the move to Middleton St. George and conversion to the Halifax Mk. II, Series I, “Special” with five bombers on strength by the end of November. On 31 December 1942, No. 419 had eighteen Halifax Mk. II Series 1, [Special] bombers on strength and they were fully trained to begin operations on 1 January 1943. They now came under control of No. 6 [RCAF] Group, No. 64 [RCAF] Base, Middleton St. George, Durham, England.
In the summer of 1942, a modification of the Halifax Mk. II Series I aircraft was introduced to the RAF, which was a new clean up of the original design, aimed at reducing the over all weight of the large bomber. The front turret was removed and the top half of the nose section was covered over by a fairing. Officially known as modification #398, it was called “Tollerton” after the Tollerton Aircraft Services where the first modification began. A number of these Halifax modifications also included the removal of the old Boulton Paul Type “C” mid-upper gun turret, saving a total weight of 1,450 lbs., which was equal to a further saving of 849 lbs. of fuel and oil over an average flight range of 1,800 miles. This new designed Halifax was officially designated B. Mk. II, Series I, [Special] beginning RAF service in August 1942.
Two-hundred and fifty were constructed by English Electric Co. Salmesbury, Preston, serial numbers W1270 to W1276, and DT481 to DT808. Another one-hundred and fifty were constructed by English Electric, serial numbers W7801 to W7939. A further seventy-four were constructed by LPTB, Leavesden, serial numbers BB236 to BB313.
The following Handley Page Halifax B. Mk. II [Special] aircraft serial numbers were assigned to No. 419 Squadron, beginning mid-November 1942.
DT615 “P” Kenyon rare ditching tent art
DT617 “C” & “G”
DT619 “Q” Kiwi Bird on Bomb with red Maple Leaf
DT629 “V” V for Victory sign
DT634 “E” Stork and Baby Bombardier [Disney]
DT689 “N” Moose menacing Hitler [flew record 45 Ops.]
No. 419 Squadron ground crew preparing a Halifax B. Mk. II, Series I, [Special] for Operations.
S/L David Walter Sealy Clark RAF #36213 was posted to No. 419 Squadron in early November 1942, appointed as the new Halifax Flight commander. Born in Auckland, New Zealand, in 1916, he served in the RNZAF in 1938, and was commissioned in the RAF in 1939. He completed his Heavy Conversion training from Wellington to Halifax Mk. II bombers at No. 1653 HCU and reported to No. 419 Squadron on 9 November. He flew his first operation in Halifax VR-Q serial DT619 on 9 January 1943, and this became his aircraft which he piloted on 21 January, 2/3 February, 14 Feb., 16/17 Feb., 18 Feb., and 19 February, his last flight. During this time period the nose art of a New Zealand Kiwi bird diving on a bomb [with Maple Leaf] was painted by Ley Kenyon on the Halifax nose and named “Kiwi.” The Kiwi is a flightless bird species endemic to New Zealand, and that is what S/L Clark wanted on his bomber.
Nose Art image of “Kiwi” from Vince Elmer collection 1988.
This was Halifax Mk. II Special serial DT619 which was assigned to pilot Sgt. Jack McIntosh on 27 February 1943. While carrying out mining operations in the Frisian Islands area, they were attacked by an enemy fighter and the bomber was severely damaged by 20 mm cannon fire, killing two crew members and badly wounding the navigator. McIntosh made a successful forced landing at RAF Coltishall, with three mines on board his bomber. Jack confirmed this nose art to me in person, and he believed the Halifax was repaired and transferred to a Heavy Conversion Unit somewhere in England.
Kiwi replica size 16” by 16” painted on original skin from Fairchild Aircraft Bristol Bolingbroke Mk. IV, serial 9041. T.O.S. by No. 8 Squadron RCAF Station Sydney, Nova Scotia, 3 October 1941.
With the loss of DT619, the Flight Commander S/L David Clark began flying Halifax Mk. II serial W1271, which he piloted on 1/2 March, 8/9 April, 10/11 April, 14/15 April and his last operation flown on 16/17 April 1943.
It has been recorded [Ian Duncan] that Halifax W1271 carried the same nose art of the Kiwi bird, also painted by P/O Ley Kenyon. It has also been reported that W1271 carried the nose art image of an Australian Kangaroo with name “Have Another” but never confirmed. To add to this confusion, the exact very same Kiwi Bird nose art will later appear on a No. 419 Squadron Lancaster KB718, code VR-J, with confirmed photo images. Ley Kenyon was shot down on 16/17 September 1943 in LW240, so he did not paint the last “Kiwi” Lancaster nose art. KB718 first flew on 1/2 May 1944, and was piloted most operations by C18516 P/O G.R.H. Peck and his aircrew who were posted to No. 419 Squadron on 31 March 1944. Why they painted the very same Kiwi nose art which first appeared on Halifax DT619 is a mystery, and most likely will never be known.
The author believes, this Ley Kenyon nose art was possibly painted on Halifax serial W1271, VR-P.
In August 1942, the English Electric Company began to manufacture the new Halifax B [Bomber] and GR [General Reconnaissance] Mk. II, Series I [Special] for the R.A.F. They were built in serial blocks with gaps to confuse the German intelligence. The first to arrive with No. 419 Squadron came from RAF serial block W7801 to W7939, Halifax Mk. II W7857 was first to arrive 9 January 1943, assigned code letters VR-O. Next came W7817, “A” 29 Jan., W7889, 19 February and W7869, 24 February. The fifth to arrived was Halifax Mk. II serial W1271, “P” which flew first operation on 1/2 March 1943, S/L D. Clark. The Halifax completed six operations in March, five in April, never flew in month of May and continued operations on 12/13 June, 19/20 June with the last flight on 21/22 June 1943. Shot down, all No. 428 Squadron attached aircrew killed in action.
This 17” by 31 “replica nose art was painted on original RCAF WWII aircraft skin fabric taken from Noorduyn Norseman RCAF serial #494, taken on strength 9 September 1942 and crashed into Lake Allen, N.W.T. on 25 August 1947. Recovered from the lake in 1993, restored by Alberta Aviation Museum to static condition in 1997, the original aircraft skins were saved from the garbage by pilot Tony Jarvis in 1999, and obtained by the author for painting. The full history of this aircraft can be read online at the Alberta Aviation Museum, Edmonton, Alberta. This original nose art was painted by Ley Kenyon No. 419 Squadron and appeared on one of their Halifax. B. Mk. II bombers, the serial and code letters are not confirmed.
This image is a nose art blow-up from the collection of Vince Elmer, Halifax B. Mk. II, Series I, “Special” which arrived with 419 Squadron in early January 1943. The Halifax came from a batch serial DT612 to DT649, constructed by English Electric Co. Salmesbury, Preston, in December 1942. Given the code letters VR-E, she was assigned to the aircrew of Sgt. B.F. Heintz, flying first operation on 21/22 January, gardening at Nectarine, thirty-five attacked and two bombers were lost. Sgt. Heintz flew the next two operations and on 4/5 February Sgt. L. Bakewill flew DT634 to Turin, where he lost two engines on the return flight. The Halifax was parked for repairs during the next three weeks, [6 to 26 February] and that is when the most interesting Walt Disney insignia nose art most likely appeared painted by Ley Kenyon.
Ellington Field, Texas, was constructed in 1917, to train American pilots for service in WWI. In October 1940, construction began on a much larger airfield, five control towers, two large hangars, and 74 barracks for navigation, bombardier, and pilot training in the United States Army Air Corp. The huge airbase opened on 26 June 1941, and soon became known as “the Bombardment Academy of the Air.” In October 1941, the first bombardier class wrote to Walt Disney to create a new base insignia. [Disney artists created over 500 insignia for U.S. government and military units in pre-war year 1941] The new insignia [above] arrived just prior to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, and seems to have been lost or forgotten in the following months of confusion as the United States prepared for entry into World War Two.
When the Disney artist’s designs were published in an aviation magazine, [Insignia Industry by Kurt Rand, February 1942] the RCAF were quick to adopt and copy this insignia on aircraft training in Canada and England. No. 9 Bombing and Gunnery School, Mont Joli, Quebec, officially opened on 15 December 1941, and training began with British Fairey Battle aircraft. New Canadian built Avro Anson Mk. II bombers began to arrive on 17 February 1942, and nineteen were assigned to the base. These Avro Anson yellow training bombers were all painted [May-June] with the Walt Disney stork and baby [on white circle] dropping bombs, a most fitting RCAF Bombing and Gunnery insignia.
More Avro Anson Mk. II bombers in training at No. 5 S.F.T.S. at Brantford, Ontario, soon followed and the Disney insignia next began appearing on bombers in Heavy Conversion Units training in England. The Domino effect was taking place and the stork next began to appear painted on combat bombers in the RCAF. The stork first appeared in the movie Dumbo which was released to the American public 23 October 1941, not released in Canada until 31 March 1942. The movie was also released to the American Armed Forces and shown in combat theatres around the world, obviously when the Disney military insignia appeared the Dumbo stork was well known to thousands. During the filming of Dumbo, 29 May 1941, the Disney Studios went on a bitter strike, led by union leader animator Art Babbitt. Disney fired Babbitt, then had to rehire his animator when the union strike was settled, however they remained life-long enemies. The Art Babbitt Western Union stork would not appear in other Disney war created military insignia, but soon found a new home in Canada and England adopted by the RCAF. No. 405, 408, and 419 Squadrons all carried this Stork nose art on Halifax and Lancaster Mk. II bombers during WWII.
Lancaster Mk. II, [Hercules VI engines] serial DS692, in No. 408 Goose Squadron began operations in October 1943. Code “S” she wore the Disney Stork, airframe mechanic is LAC J. A. Talbot from Pictou, Nova Scotia. Crash landed Marston Moor on 23 July 1944. RCAF image PL26028.
The aircrew of Sgt. B.F. Heintz were assigned a new Halifax DT634 and flew seven operations in ‘their’ bomber, 21 January, 23 Jan., 29 Jan., 1/2 March, 3 March, 5/6 March, and 9/10 March. It is believed they were the crew which picked the Walt Disney stork for their bomber nose art painting by Ley Kenyon. The little stork came from the 1941 movie Dumbo, which became one of Disney’s most direct, appealing, and most American of all his movie tales. The stork delivers Dumbo to Mrs. Jumbo dressed as a Western Union messenger, all created by animator Art Babbitt, who hated Walt Disney, and headed the animator union which got him fired. Forced to rehire Babbitt, Art and Walt would be enemies for life. The new military insignia using the Western Union stork was created by animator Hank Porter, and now it was going to war painted on a Canadian RCAF Halifax bomber.
The Walt Disney stork and baby dropping bombs nose art was possibly painted on Halifax DT634 during the three weeks the aircraft was in for repairs and double engine replacement, 6 to 26 February 1943.
F/O Charles Edward Porter J9668, was hit by flak south of Bremen, Germany, and lost one engine, then decided to bomb Magdeburg, instead of Berlin. After his bombing run was completed, his Halifax was attacked by a German night fighter and a second engine was set on fire. The fuselage caught fire and the escape hatches became jammed by the heat, they had to be kicked or cut open with a fire axe. All of his aircrew finally jumped safely, pilot F/O Porter remained at the controls too long [saving his crew] and went down with his bomber.
This 18” by 24” scale replica nose art image was painted on original aircraft tail fin skin taken from Fleet Fawn 7C, RCAF serial 264, constructed in 1938. The tri-color tail markings are original RCAF standard when they were applied in 1938. This is painted as close as possible to the original Ley Kenyon nose art painting completed on Halifax VR-E, serial DT634.
F/Sgt. Harling was one of the original Wireless/Air Gunners in No. 419 Squadron, flying with a number of different pilots, F/Sgt. J.A. Clark, S/L P. Dart and F/O D.H. Kennay. On 13 September 1942, Harling was flying in Wellington Mk. III, VR-O, serial X3308, piloted by F/Sgt. Cameron. They were hit by flak over the target of Bremen, Germany, and two fuel tanks were pierced and leaking. They made a forced landing in the sea, just three miles from Southwold, Suffolk, England, around 5 am. Ditching diagram RAF Wellington Dinghy installation and exit points.
In the darkness, second pilot R.A.F. Sgt. A. Donlin released the aircraft dingy, but he failed to exit the sextant escape hatch and went down with the aircraft, the remainder of the aircrew survived in the dingy raft for over two hours and were saved at sunrise.
DT615 became the first new Halifax Mk. II to wear the code letter VR-P in 419 Squadron, flying operations 3/4 Feb., 18 Feb., 19/20 Feb., 24/25 Feb., and 26/27 February. On the 27th the aircrew of Sgt. Bill Gray were assigned Halifax “P” DT615 on a mining operation to the Frisian Islands. The rear gunner was F/Sgt. Russ Harling, and again his bomber was hit by flak and developed engine trouble, forcing them to ditch in the sea. They spent a very wet and cold night [nine hours] in the dinghy, were found the following morning and brought safely home with no injuries. Rear gunner F/Sgt. Russ Harling was the only member of No. 419 Squadron to survive two ditching’s in the cruel Atlantic Ocean. A very lucky Canadian rear gunner.
I interviewed Russ Harling in 1989, and he was kind enough to sent me this image from his collection. This special ground crew tent art of the second Halifax DT615 ditching was painted by fellow rear gunner RAF P/O Ley Kenyon.
The second Halifax Mk. II to wear the 419 Squadron code letter “P” became serial JD270, nicknamed “Popeye.” Constructed by E.E. in a batch of 35 serial JD244 to JD278, she was the last of four delivered to No. 419 Squadron, serial JD256, JD257, JD258, and JD270.
Pilot Sgt. William Donald Leslie Cameron R116979 was born in Sarnia, Ontario, after training his aircrew were posted to No. 419 Squadron in mid-June 1943. Flew his first operation as 2nd pilot with P/O B.F. Haintz, Halifax JB900, 22/23 June 1942. First operation as pilot was flown in Halifax Mk. II serial JD163, 28/29 June 1943, to bomb Cologne, Germany. The sprog aircrew were now assigned a new Halifax Mk. II aircraft, serial JD270, coded VR-P [Popeye]. They flew their first operation in JD270 on 3/4 July, part of 68 RCAF aircraft which were despatched to attack Cologne, Germany, six of these aircraft failed to return. [Which means over forty aircrew members were P.O.W.s or killed in action that night] The Popeye throwing red bombs nose art was picked by the Cameron crew and painted by Ley Kenyon possibly in the stand-down period of ten days 14 to 24 July 1943. The Halifax bomber JD270, VR-P, would be despatched on fourteen operations and eleven were piloted by Sgt. Cameron and his aircrew.
Vince Elmer collection image, ground crew name unknown.
Operations flown by Halifax Mk. II serial JD270, red circle piloted by Sgt. William Cameron.
Scale replica Ley Kenyon nose art painted on original RCAF Norseman skin from #494.
After completing their bomb run over the City of Berlin, Halifax JD270 was in a mid-air collision with a German night-fighter aircraft, and RCAF F/Sgt. Boos, F/Sgt. Scharf, and RAF L. Duggan were able to bail out of their bomber and were taken Prisoners of War. The other four members of the crew were killed in action, buried in the Berlin War Cemetery, Charlottenburg, Germany.
WO2 pilot William Donald Leslie Cameron, age 22 years, killed in action 1 September 1943.
Vince Elmer photo 1988, DT629, VR-V, artist Ley Kenyon.
Halifax B. Mk. II serial DT629 arrived with No. 419 Squadron in late January 1943, flying only one operation 23/24 of the month. The Ley Kenyon nose art was very simple, featuring the famous Churchill WWII sign “V for Victory” for the Halifax code letter VR-V.
In February 1943, DT629 flew six operations, 2, 3, 7/8, 14, 16/17, and her last trip on 18 of the month. The last trip was flown by aircrew of F/Sgt. R.G. Goddard, mining operation to Frisian Islands, where they were attacked by a German night-fighter. Rear Gunner F/Sgt. W.T. Gaunt fired a long burst and tracers were seen to hit the enemy fighter which broke off attack and went into a drive. Claimed as one Enemy fighter probably damaged. The RCAF bomber then disappears from the squadron records, no crash report, possibly transferred to another RCAF Squadron, or most likely to an RCAF Heavy Conversion Unit in England for sprog aircrew training.
Halifax DT689 was constructed in October 1942, by English Electric Co. at Salmesbury, Preston, in British block serial numbers DT665 to DT705. Delivered to No. 419 Squadron in early November she was assigned code letters VR-N, and began aircrew training at Middleton St. George, Durham, sometime after 10 November 1942. This aircraft was soon taken over by the new C.O. Wing Commander M.M. [Mervin] Fleming [his drawing by Ley Kenyon, shown in the cockpit above] and the Halifax became known to all as the “Winco’s Bomber.” The front nose fairing known as the “Tollerton” nose had two factory horizontal widows above the bomb aimer’s panels and this is where Ley Kenyon created his next truly nose art special painting.
Vince Elmer 1988 image
This nose art was dedicated to the squadron’s first C.O. W/C J. [Moose] Fulton, DFC, and AFC, showing a Moose head which has just taken a bite out of the ass of a running Adolf Hitler. This nose art became an inspiration for all squadron members as Halifax DT689 was never shot down, and set a record for 45 operations over Europe and Germany. Her operation record follows; the red circles stand for the eleven operations flown by W/C M. M. Fleming, DSO, DFC, 8 September 1942 until 8 October 1943.
This replica nose art painting was created by the author to honour W/C J. Fulton, DFC, AFC, painted on an original skin panel [16” by 27”] from Handley Page Halifax B. Mk. VII, serial number NA337. Lost on a combat operation [dropping war supplies] 23/24 April 1945, the bomber laid on the bottom of Lake Mjosa, Norway, for the next fifty years. The full history can be found on many web sites, books, and videos, showing the correct restoration to the specifications of a British Halifax A. Mk. VII. This is not the combat version bomber flown by Canadians during WWII, however that is what the Halifax Aircraft Association RCAF veterans decided, and so be it. In the beginning,  it was decided the author would paint replica nose art on original Halifax salvaged parts, but in the end, the replica panels were given away to WWII veteran senior association members. The black paint patches on the image are the original British WWII matt paint which survived fifty years in the lake in Norway, and today is preserved on this original Halifax skin panel dedicated to “Moose” Fulton.
RCAF Halifax B. Mk. II, Series I, “Special” serial DT689, became the pride and joy of No. 419 Squadron in the first eight months of 1943, dedicated to their first Commanding Officer “Moose” Fulton. British rear gunner Ley Kenyon painted this first nose art of the Moose chasing Hitler in honour of his missing in action C.O., which he flew one operation with as his tail gunner. All this history was saved by Vince Elmer and after his death was donated to No. 419 Squadron archives, where it has been forgotten with the passage of time.
For correct No. 419 Squadron historical records it should be noted that the idea, design, and approval of the “Moose” Squadron crest did not begin until August 1943, then it was submitted to the Chester Herald for British approval on the last day of the month.
The author has searched, but no record can be found naming who designed the original Moose drawing for approval by Wing Commander Mervin Fleming, DFC, in August 1943. It should be very clear to any historian this person was No. 419 British nose artist Ley Kenyon, who painted the first unofficial Moose nose art on Halifax DT689. The official Moose Badge, Motto and authority by King George VI were later approved in June 1944.
Halifax B. Mk. II “Special” serial JB859 “Thundering Heard”
The original replica nose art painted on salvaged skin from NA337, donated to the Halifax Aircraft Association in July 1999, given away, private location today unknown.
Halifax B. Mk. II, “Special” serial JB859 was one of 123 constructed at Handley Page Ltd. Cricklewood and Radlett, serial numbers JB781 to JB974. The bomber was from the second batch of 42 built between 28 February to 23 March 1943. Four of these bombers were delivered to RCAF No. 419 squadron by ferry pilots, serial JB859, JB860, JB861 and JB862. The Halifax would begin operations on 22/23 March 1943, and completed thirteen, with six different Canadian aircrews up to 12/13 May, when it was damaged by German flak and required major repairs.
12th operation was on 4/5 May 43, P/O J.D. Dickson and 13th operation 12/13 May, when the Halifax was hit by flak, rear turret out of action, flak holes in fuselage and port prop holed.
After repairs were completed Halifax JB859 was assigned to the aircrew of F/O Stanley Mervyn Heard, J5535, a twenty-three-year-old farm lad from Swift Current, Saskatchewan.
The Heard aircrew flew six operations in their Halifax, the 14th to 19th operations for the bomber. During this time period Ley Kenyon painted the special nose art of a stampede of cattle called “Thundering Heard.” The Halifax flew two more operations on 10/11 August to Nuremberg and 12/13 August to Milan, Italy. The Halifax was transferred to No. 1666 Heavy Conversion Unit, for training and survived the war, struck off charge by RAF on 1 November 1945, then soon after scrapped.
The Ley Kenyon nose art painting which flew only 5 or 6 operations during WWII. Image from Vince Elmer collection in 1988.
F/L Stanley Mervyn Heard, 23 years, was killed in action on 17 August 1943, raid on Peenemunde, Germany, shot down in Halifax JD158, “Three-headed Dragon” crashed Baltic Sea near Greifswald, Bodden, Germany. Body recovered and buried in Greifswald Cemetery, Germany. 15” by 32“painting on original skin from RCAF Norseman #494.
Halifax serial JD158, VR-D for “Dragon” by Ley Kenyon, from Vince Elmer collection 1988.
Halifax B. Mk. II, Special, serial JD158 was constructed by English Electric Co., Salmesbury, Preston, a batch of thirty-eight serial JD143 to JD180, built between 7 May to 28 May 1943. Five of these new Mk. II bombers were delivered by British female ferry pilots to RCAF No. 419 Squadron, Middleton St. George, Durham, JD143, JD147, JD158, JD159 and JD163. Halifax JD158 was assigned the code letters VR-D, and flew her first operation on 23/24 May 1943, assigned to pilot J8170 F/O Charles Edward MacIntosh and aircrew flying their 12th operation. Charles MacIntosh was born in Winnipeg, Manitoba, 1916, and enlisted in the RCAF on 3 March 1941. Trained at No. 2 ITS, Regina, Sask., graduated 25 May 1941, No. 8 EFTS, Vancouver, B.C., graduated 26 July 1941, No. 3 SFTS, Calgary, Alberta, received his wings, graduated and commissioned 17 October 1941. Aircrew came together as a unit at No. 22 OTU, Wellesbourne Mountford, Warwickshire, and trained at No. 1659 Heavy Conversion Unit at Topcliffe, Yorkshire, 20 February 1943, posted to No. 419 Squadron on 11 March 1943.
Upon arrival at No. 419 Squadron they flew their first operation in Halifax DT789 on 12/13 March, and the Daily Diary [above] spelled the new pilot’s surname incorrectly. The correct spelling should read F/O C.E. MacIntosh, Captain. They completed ten more combat operations in Halifax JB861, DT672 , DT616, DT798 , BB376, JB859, and BB384 . Assigned new Halifax JD158 on 23/24 March 1943, they would fly her eleven times, marked with red circle.
The aircrew of Flying Officer J8170 C.E. MacIntosh finished their tour on 13/14 July and the Halifax JD158 was taken over by S/L G.A. McMurdy who flew her seven times marked with letter M. The Three-headed Winged Dragon was most likely painted by Ley Kenyon in early June and the reason is not known. The Three-Headed Dragon exist in drawings, myths, and legends created in many different countries, some with wings and others without.
On his second operation in JD158, Flying Officer Charles MacIntosh took part in a 43 plane attack on Essen, Germany, and the bomber was hit by flak. One port and one starboard engine were knocked out of service, plus the rear turret and port wing were heavy damaged by flak holes. With great skill and determination, pilot MacIntosh was able to return across the North Sea on two engines and make an emergency landing at Coltishall, no aircrew were injured. For his actions he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross, effective 1 September 1943. It is possible the Three-Headed Winged Dragon nose art reflected on this dangerous operation and was painted during the two-week repair period, 29 May to 12 June 1943.
This author 22” by 17” scale replica nose art painting was completed on one original skin panel from Halifax B. Mk. A, serial NA337. While the WWII colors are not known, this is very close to the original nose art by Ley Kenyon, and helps preserve his lost Canadian 419 Squadron Halifax aircraft “Dragon” nose creation.
RCAF No. 1691 [Bomber] Gunnery Flight was formed at Dalton, Yorkshire, England, on 2 July 1943, and promoted pilot F/Lt. Charles MacIntosh J8170 was posted to the new unit effective 14 August 1943. On 1 September 1943, he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross, AFRO 2322/43, dated 12 November 1943.
The Three-Headed Winged Dragon Halifax JD158 was assigned to the aircrew of F/Lt. Stanley Heard on 17/18 August raid on Peenemunde, Germany. Attacked by German night-fighters, they crash into the Baltic near Greifswald, Bodden, Germany, all killed.
Author painting of F/Lt. Heard from original 1943 sketch drawing by Ley Kenyon.
On 22 April 1943, the English Electric Co. Salmesbury, Preston, England, began production of 223 Halifax B. Mk. II, Series 1, “Special” aircraft, serial numbers JD105 to JD476. The first production batch of twenty-four bombers received the serial numbers JD105 to JD128, and they were constructed without the mid-upper gun turret, which was faired over, shown in the flying drawing of JD114, above left. Later production aircraft had the British Boulton Paul ‘A’ Mk. VII mid-upper turret added, as shown in the above Halifax line drawing. Five of these first batch new bombers were assigned to RCAF units, JD107 to 408 Squadron, JD113 and JD114 to No. 419 Squadron, and JD123 and JD124 to No. 405 Squadron. For many new sprog aircrews in Bomber Command, the full risks of death associated with combat flying did not become evident until they began flying operations. A tour of combat was based on the accumulation of 200 hours of combat operations, or roughly 30 operational trips. If they survived a first tour, members were assigned to a training period for the next six months, thirty days leave, followed by a second operation tour of 30-35 trips. During the war, the odds of aircrew survival varied considerably due to the bombing campaign, enemy aircraft involved, ground flak, and always the weather.
The actual RAF odds against combat survival were somewhat withheld from the aircrews and the public during the war, and it was generally accepted that aircrews had a 50-50 chance of survival. In reality it was not that good.
While facts and records could be hidden by RAF High Command, the psychological impact of a battle-damaged aircraft returning to base with dead and wounded had a major impact on both RCAF air and ground crews. Jack McIntosh described his own recollected experience with death, survival, and the level of stress he had to deal with in his early combat operations.
Jack McIntosh flew his first operation [second Dickey] to F/Sgt. Gray in Halifax DT548, code “M” on 13 February 1943. He flew his crew in Halifax DT689 “N” on 26/27 February 1943.
Jack explained he was motivated to join the RCAF out of respect for his Scottish father, who had been wounded twice while serving with British forces in WWI. Rigorously selected and trained as a pilot for the RCAF, the grim realities of operational combat and the high death toll suddenly dispelled the more glamourous ideas in the young pilot’s mind. On their third operation of dropping mines in the area of the Frisian Islands, Halifax DT619 was attacked by a German fighter and two crew members were killed with the navigator serious injured. On landing back at base pilot McIntosh saw the battle damage done to the rear of his bomber, and the death of his two crew members. The psychological impact of seeing the remains of his rear gunner F/Sgt George Irving Herbert Dunbar R108858, age 22 years, had an instant impact on Jack. The 20 mm cannon shells from the German fighter had destroyed the rear gun positon, and the entire gunner cockpit was covered in blood, bone, and brain tissue as his rear gunner had been decapitated. Jack was now overcome with a fear of making a mistake, killing more of his crew, and mostly the fact he would never survive his tour of 30 operations. Jack was taken off combat operations, assigned two new crew members, and began training flights with his new aircrew, navigator F/O G.J.M. Harvey, F/Engineer [RAF] Sgt. E.S. Mulholland, and rear gunner F/Sgt. K.N. Doe, who had been his original mid-upper gunner. They flew together on 1st operation Halifax DT629 “V” on 30 April/1 May 1943, 4th operation for original four crew members.
On 1 May 1943, Sgt. McIntosh was instructed to report to the Commanding Officer W/C Mervin Fleming, where he had a long talk with both his C.O. and the squadron padre. His feelings about the war, life and dead in real combat operations were questioned by both officers. After the talk, the C.O. informed Jack a new Halifax bomber was coming from the factory and he could take this bomber as his own if he wished. Jack made a point to get a ride over to meet the young British female ferry pilot, and could still recall how upset she was to see him. This lady would not look him in the eyes, and refused to talk with him, she did not want to meet any operational pilots as she knew he would be dead in a few weeks. Once again the harsh realities of war casualties during combat operations were confronted by twenty-year-old pilot Jack McIntosh. On 6 May 43, Halifax serial JD114 was ready for her first test flight by the crew of Sgt. McIntosh, assigned the squadron code letters VR and her initial call sign “O for Orange.” After the completion of four operations the aircrew decided to give their bomber a name and nose art painting. Jack was asked to pick the aircraft name and he selected his home town in Alberta, Canada, Medicine Hat. Aircrew photo taken 6 July 1943, McIntosh collection.
The nose art painting of Walt Disney’s Goofy picking bombs from a hat and dropping them on Germany was painted by P/O Ley Kenyon. The painting was completed in one day and first flew on operation number seven, 21/22 June 1943, when fifty-seven RCAF bombers struck Krefeld, Germany, and eight were shot down. Operations flown by Jack McIntosh aircrew marked in yellow.
During the last three operations Jack and his aircrew experienced an increase in tension and stress, but nothing like some historians have described. Jack McIntosh – “The name and nose art made it feel she was ‘our’ aircraft and would always bring us home.” That was the psychological power of WWII nose art, which is impossible to understand by most of today’s generation of modern jet pilot’s. The navigator and flight engineer required three more operations to hit thirty trips. This was operation number 31 for P/O McIntosh and his Halifax JD114 had completed 32 operations by 28 September 1943.
I ask Jack for the operation which stood out the most and he replied it was number nineteen, bombing the secret German A/4 rocket testing base at Peenemunde, Germany.
The RCAF despatched sixty-two Halifax and Lancaster aircraft and forty-seven hit the primary target, twelve were shot down.
No. 419 Squadron despatched the most RCAF Halifax aircraft with seventeen hitting the primary target and three failed to return.
1 JB965 21:07 hrs.
2 JD210 21:10 Hrs. nose art Happy Valley Sally.
3 JD114 21:13 hrs. nose art Medicine Hat [Flying 20st Operation].
4 BB376 21:15 hrs.
5 JD382 21:18 hrs.
6 JD270 21:20 hrs. nose art Popeye.
7 JD325 21:22 hrs.
8 JD163 21:25 hrs. “N” Sgt. Patterson, ditched in sea, no trace found.
9 JD158 21:27 hrs Three-Headed Dragon “D” F/Sgt. Heard, shot down.
10 JD459 21:29 hrs.
11 JD204 21:31 hrs.
12 JD420 21:35 hrs.
13 JD457 21:36 hrs.
14 DT734 21:37 hrs.
15 JB929 21:39 hrs.
16 JD458 21:40 hrs. “C” F/Sgt. Perkin, Australian, shot down.
17 JD456 21:41 hrs.
This 18”by 24” painting was completed on original aircraft skin from Fleet Fawn 7C, constructed in 1938, trained pilots at Camp Borden, Ontario, until 1946. The nineteenth operation flown by Jack McIntosh to bomb Peenemunde, Germany, 18 August 1943. JD114 took off at 21:13 hrs [third] and arrived back at base at 05:53 hrs, the last RCAF bomber to return. Medicine Hat was the last RCAF Halifax bomber to bomb the rocket testing site at Peenemunde, Germany. Halifax JD114 went on to set a 419 [Moose] Squadron record of 50 operations.
On 30 September 1943, Medicine Hat had a complete aircraft overhaul and her original four engines were changed. During repainting the Halifax was assigned the code letter “V.”
Goofy failed to return from the 51st operation, no trace found and no known grave for aircrew.
Halifax B. Mk. II Special serial JD210 “Happy-Valley Sally”
Vince Elmer 1988 photo of JD210 taken after operation #14 to Remscheid, Germany, 31 July/1 August 1943. JD210 was constructed by English-Electric in a batch of twenty-one JD198 to JD218, 28 May to 7 June 1943. This new Halifax code VR-S was chosen to fly the 1,000th sortie by No. 419 Squadron on her first combat operation 11/12 June 1943, piloted by P/O R.A.H. Bell. One-hundred and one RCAF bombers were despatched to bomb Dusseldorf, Germany, and eight struck the primary target, seven were shot down.
On the 18 June 1943, JD210 was assigned to the aircrew of F/Lt. A. N. Quaile, and they would fly ‘their’ Halifax for a total of seventeen operations until the end of August 1943. It is assumed they were the aircrew which picked the nose art name and Esquire magazine pin-up girl from May 1943, painted by RAF nose artist Ley Kenyon, in June.
The nose art by Ley Kenyon came from the May 1943 “Varga” pin-up from Esquire magazine.
Vince Elmer image 1988, eighteen operations, around 20 August 1943. The Ice Cream cone was the attack on Milan, Italy, 12/13 Aug. 1943, a “Milk Run” target with very little enemy resistance, plus many Italians operated ice cream stores in England.
16”by 22” replica painted on original Halifax skin from NA337.
The 22nd operation to Berlin was flown by F/Sgt. Marjeren, 31 August and 1 September 1943.
Operation #23 took place 3/4 September 43, to Foret de Raismes, France.
A sprog crew piloted by American F/O James Arthur Studer J14875 were assigned to fly the 24th operation to Mannheim, Germany, 5/6 September 1943. F/O Studer flew his first operation 2nd Dickey with veteran pilot Jack McIntosh on 30/31 August 43, in Halifax “Medicine Hat.”
This would be their third operation, from which they never returned.
F/O James Arthur Studer, age 21 years, born Hennepin County, Excelsior, Minnesota, USA, buried in war cemetery at Durnbach, Germany. One of 6,129 Americans serving in the RCAF, after the Pearl Harbor attack, 1,759 were released and enrolled in the service of the United States. Seven Americans would be killed in action flying Halifax bombers in No. 419 Squadron.
P/O Ley Bennett Kenyon [RAF #112175] flew his 25th Wellington Mk. III rear gunner operation in aircraft X3360 on 13 July 1942. He was now promoted to No. 419 Squadron as gunnery leader, teaching sprog air gunners and flying training “Bulls-eye” operations over Europe. In addition to his gunnery training duties he also taught RCAF aircraft recognition and evasive escape tactics for aircrew who might be shot down. It would appear he had little time to paint aircraft nose art during the months of August, September, and October 1942. On 13 October 1942, he flew rear gunner with his C.O. Wing Commander M. M. Fleming, [X3659] his 26th operation and last in the Wellington Mk. III aircraft. In November 1942, the new Halifax B. Mk. II, series I, “Special” aircraft began to arrive at No. 419 Squadron. Halifax DT689, coded VR-N had the front nose painted by Kenyon for his new C.O. Fleming, in honour of their first C.O. “Moose” Fulton. On 4/5 May 1943, Ley Kenyon flew 2nd gunner in DT689 containing the art of a Moose chasing Hitler. This trip became his 28th operation and the pilot was his C.O. W/C Mervin Fleming. The 29th operation came on 10/11 August 1943, Halifax serial BB376, and now Ley Kenyon required only one more combat trip to complete his tour of duty. Kenyon had actually survived 14 training operations “Bulls-eye” trips, three trips to Berlin, and now he would take off on his 44th operation in Halifax serial LW240, fifty-five bombers attack Modane, France, 16/17 September 1943. On the return trip they were attacked by two German night-fighters as they approached the English Channel. Kenyon shot down one German Me 110 but the other night-fighter set two aircraft engines on fire and the crew had to jump. Ley Kenyon avoided capture, made contact with the French Resistance, who attempted to smuggle him to Spain, but the Gestapo arrested him on a train at Bordeaux, France.
The target 16/17 September 1943, tunnel and marshalling railway yards at Modane, France [A], the area around Lisieux, France, [B] where Halifax VR-S, serial LW240 was shot down. F/Lt/ Ley Kenyon was able to evade the Germans and proceeded south by train attempting to reach the Spanish border. He was arrested by the Gestapo changing trains at Bordeaux, France. He was taken to Stalag Luft III, the POW north camp for RAF escapees, [no Americans] and became involved in the Great Escape. His artistic skills allowed him to forge passes, train tickets and identity papers, plus he also manned the all important air-pump supplying air for the tunnel diggers. His tunnel drawings and history have been published many times in books, videos, documentaries and the 1963 American fantasy WWII Hollywood movie “The Great Escape.”
A wonderful 1944 drawing of F/L Bennett Ley Kenyon by a fellow artist in Stalag Luft III.
In the postwar Kenyon became Britain’s greatest painter of underwater scenes, joined Cousteau in 1951, and spent five months with him on the Calypso. Wrote books illustrated with many of his undersea paintings, artist, author, photographer and underwater film maker, taught Prince Philip to deep sea dive in the Buckingham Palace swimming pool. He painted for himself where ever he went and gave free water color lessons to others, lectured thousands of students using his paintings and under water films. In 1988, while camping in the rough jungle in Malaysia he caught typhus, but survived to return home and organize an art Exhibition. In February 1991, while visiting friends in New Mexico, United States, he collapsed and died.
In 2001, [after twenty-two years’ research] the author published the very first RAF/RCAF nose art book which featured many firsts for Canadians, model builders, historians, and generations who were only educated with American Aircraft Nose Art. The cover of my book was dedicated to WWII pilot Jack McIntosh and his Ley Kenyon painted nose art of Walt Disney’s Goofy, named “Medicine Hat.” In 2002, a two-page story appeared in the Calgary Sun Newspaper by British born journalist friend Peter Smith, and veteran pilot Jack was very, very, proud.
Today our RCAF aircrew from the greatest generation are mostly gone and forgotten by a new age and a new generation of Canadian military male and female jet pilot’s. The old nose art from WWII is lowbrow stuff, and the pin-up girls from 1940’s get occasional complaints from even our present-day RCAF pilots of both sexes’. Art historians, sociologists, and even pop culture researchers are starting to look at past war art for clues to their value in time of conflict and social change. They should be looking at the awful military death toll in war, and the murderess effect it has on civilian populations, women, children, the helpless old and sick. After fifty-five years, I have found nose art did in fact boost WWII military morale, they had little else, and if an aircraft returned time and time again, it became famous and was considered lucky. The young RCAF aircrews of WWII knew the survival odds were heavily stacked against them, and painting nose art gave their aircraft an identity, they hoped might just help bring them back home. Sadly, it only worked for a small few like Jack McIntosh from Calgary, Alberta. The Royal Air Force lost 55,358 personnel during WWII, 8,240 of those were Canadians flying combat operations. No. 6 [RCAF] Group lost 127 Wellington bombers, 149 Lancaster bombers, and 508 Halifax bombers over enemy territory. For the past fifty-five years the author has attempted to document, repaint, and educate Canadians on our forgotten RCAF nose art paintings, which our Canadian RCAF museum’s refuse to properly define or display.
P/O [later promoted to F/Lt.] Bennett Ley Kenyon was one of seven British born RAF officers posted to No. 419 Squadron RCAF on 3 March 1942. Ley was part of the original squadron roots and for the next eighteen months he served as rear air gunner, flying 29 combat operations, promoted to Canadian squadron gunnery leader, flying 14 operations [Bulls-eye] training fellow gunners, and in addition to flying duties he taught enemy aircraft recognition and enemy evasive tactics if they were shot down over enemy territory. During his busy duties he also found the time to decorate at least twelve No. 419 Squadron bombers with Canadian nose art, which today has been forgotten even by his original RCAF Squadron, training NATO pilots, based at Cold Lake, Alberta. Two of his decorated bombers set 419 Squadron records flying 45 and 50 operations, safely bringing the aircrews back to England.
Dedicated to Ley Kenyon, this is my serious effort to document and preserve on original WWII RCAF aircraft skin, his forgotten “Canadian” No. 419 [Moose] Squadron nose art, where he painted the Mouse before the Moose.