Heavy losses as RAF Bomber Command targets Nuremberg

Click here

Excerpt

Bomber Command did not normally bomb during the full moon – but the weather forecast for 30th/31st March suggested cloud cover over Germany to conceal the bombers. Unfortunately a late meteorological reconnaissance flight by a Mosquito which suggested otherwise was ignored.

A total of 795 aircraft were sent all the way to Nuremberg, and the bright moonlight without cloud cover proved ideal for the night fighters, which began their attacks almost as soon as the bomber stream crossed the coast over Belgium. Navigation was again badly affected by high winds and to make matters worse the target itself was covered with cloud. Little damage was caused to Nuremberg and some aircraft attacked Schweinfurt, 50 miles away when it was mistakenly target marked by two Mosquitos. Here, as at Nuremberg, most of they bombs fell outside the town.

Intermission Stories (7)

Why we should never forget…

Pacific Paratrooper

Harold Selley receiving his Bronze Star Harold Selley receiving his Bronze Star

Medic, Harold Selley

Harold Selley was in the Medical Company of the 7th Cavalry Regiment from the time time he arrived in Korea, July 1950.  He would remain there for 11 months as a medic in a Forward Collecting Station.

Selley related in an interview,” Several times my collecting station was surrounded by the enemy and we were unable to get our wounded to the rear.  Most of the time, we medics provided our own perimeter security for the station.  That meant we took turns in staying in foxholes guarding our station.  Usually we were far enough to the rear of the actual small arms fire that we could operate the station without the enemy invading the area.  Since we received wounded from the entire regiment, we saw practically everyone who was wounded in the entire regiment.”

A medical HQ in Korea A medical HQ in Korea

Selley was…

View original post 678 more words

Casualty list of the sinking of HMCS St. Croix

The sequel to the forgotten post about HMCS St. Croix…

The reason I forgot was because I had posted the same story on the French version of this blog. There was a French-Canadian sailor who also died.

He was in the engine room.

Here are the first in the list of casualties of HMCS St. Croix.


In memory of
Leading Coder
SELWYN ARTHUR  ADAMSON

who died on September 20, 1943

Military Service:

Service Number: V/36276
Age: 30
Force: Navy
Unit: Royal Canadian Naval Volunteer Reserve
Division: H.M.C.S. St. Croix

Additional Information:

Son of Arthur M. and Gladys Adamson, of Port Credit, Ontario.

In memory of
Leading Stoker
HUGH  ARMSTRONG

who died on September 20, 1943

Military Service:

Service Number: A/2547
Age: 40
Force: Navy
Unit: Royal Canadian Navy Reserve
Division: H.M.C.S. St. Croix

Additional Information:

Husband of Jean Elizabeth Armstrong, of Toronto, Ontario.

In memory of
Engine Room Artificer
WILLIAM MORRISON  ARMSTRONG

who died on September 20, 1943

Military Service:

Service Number: 21375
Age: 29
Force: Navy
Unit: Royal Canadian Navy
Division: H.M.C.S. St. Croix

Additional Information:

Son of William J. and Lillian A. Armstrong, of Victoria, British Columbia. Husband of Thelma Annie Armstrong, of Esquimalt, British Columbia.

In memory of
Able Seaman
WILLIAM RUFUS  BADOUR

who died on September 20, 1943

Military Service:

Service Number: V/30991
Age: 19
Force: Navy
Unit: Royal Canadian Naval Volunteer Reserve
Division: H.M.C.S. St. Croix

Additional Information:

Son of Augusta Badour, of Kingston, Ontario.

2557394_1

WILLIAM RUFUS  BADOUR

2557394_2

2557394_3

WILLIAM RUFUS  BADOUR

In memory of
Able Seaman
NORRIS BENJAMIN  BAILEY

who died on September 20, 1943

Military Service:

Service Number: V/31265
Age: 25
Force: Navy
Unit: Royal Canadian Naval Volunteer Reserve
Division: H.M.C.S. St. Croix.

Additional Information:

Son of Maria J. Taitinger, of Claresholm, Alberta.

2557399_1

NORRIS BENJAMIN  BAILEY


In memory of
Leading Stoker
GORDON FRANKLIN  BARNHART

who died on September 20, 1943

Military Service:

Service Number: V/8916
Age: 23
Force: Navy
Unit: Royal Canadian Naval Volunteer Reserve
Division: H.M.C.S. St. Croix

Additional Information:

Son of Reuben W. and Malvienna Barnhart, of Fort Erie, Ontario.

Found on the Handley Page Halifax Facebook Group Page

Click here.

From Buzz Hope

As evening shadows fall, and day turns into night as the same as this night 70 years ago, 30th March 1944, a total of 937 sorties will be flown by Bomber Command. There will be 155 aircraft briefed to carry out diversionary and support operations while 782 aircraft would be despatched, to attack Nuremburg. (No.1 Group – 181 a/c, No.3 Group – 56 a/c, No.4 Group – 119 a/c, No.5 Group – 201, No.6 Group – 118 and No.8 Group – 107 a/c) Of the 782 aircraft dispatched, 634 will actually bomb (No.1 Group – 151 (83.43%) a/c, No.3 Group – 42 a/c (75%), No.4 Group – 81 a/c (68.07%), No.5 Group – 168 (83.58%), No.6 Group – 98 (83.05%) and No.8 Group – 94 a/c (87.85%). The attacking a/c dropped a total of 2.148 tons of bombs From the aircraft despatched there were 106 aircraft ‘Struck off Charge’:- 1 aircraft crashed on take-off, 2 aircraft returned so badly damaged were deemed beyond economical repair and 8 aircraft crashed on return with 95 aircraft failed to return, 10 the result of Flak, 76 by fighter, 1 aircraft shot down by friendly fire 3 by probable fighter attack, 2 by probable flak, 1 aircraft shot down by combined fighter and flak damage and 2 aircraft collided.

From the 106 aircraft ‘Struck off Charge’ from the nights operations there were 721 casualties: – 542 killed, 6 airmen injured, 161 airmen became Prisoners of War and 12 airmen evaded capture.

Of the 542 killed there were 372 from the Royal Air Force, 47 airmen from the Royal Australian Air Force, 109 airmen from the Royal Canadian Air Force, 10 airmen from the Royal New Zealand Air Force, 2 from the Royal Norwegian Air Force and 2 Belgium Army agents. The average age from the information available was 24½ years old.

The 542 airmen killed would be laid to rest as follows. 418 airmen in 6 Germen Cemeteries, 41 airmen in 3 Belgium Cemeteries, 13 airmen in 2 French Cemeteries, 26 airmen in 20 cemeteries around the British Isles and 40 airmen would have no known grave and are remembered on the Runnymede Memorial. The 2 Belgium agents and the 2 Royal Norwegian Air Force airmen killed ? Let us also remember those that waited in vain and families who later that day would receive that fateful telegram, ‘killed or missing from last nights operations’

The youngest airmen killed were 1804016 Sgt. J.P. Mackilligin RAFVR, an Air Gunner with No.106 Squadron (No.5 Group) and was in a Lancaster which was the 93rd aircraft down; possible fighter attack , aged 18. The oldest being 1329560 Sgt. R.H. Paxton RAFVR a Flight Engineer with No.550 Squadron (No.4 Group) and he was in a Lancaster which was the 4th aircraft: shot down by Flak near Leige, Belgium.

Listed below are the names of the 542 killed on this night from the 106 aircraft ‘Struck off Charge’ but we must also not forget the airmen killed, wounded or injured from the aircraft that were repaired and continued in service.

Rank Name Air Force Age
F/S ADAM W.J. RAAF 25
SGT ADAMS L.R. RAF ?
W/O ADAMS R.H. RAF 24
F/O ADAMSON W.I. DFC RAF ?
SGT ADDY D. RAF 21
SGT ALLAN W.J. RAAF 22
SGT ALLEN J.B. RCAF ?
SGT ANDERSON D.A. RAF 20
WO2 ANDERSON F. RCAF ?
F/S ANDERSON H.H.W. RNZAF 31
SGT ANDERSON L.G. RCAF 27
P/O ANDERSON P.R. RAAF 27
SGT ARMSTRONG R. RAF 20
P/O ARNEIL A.S. RAF 21
F/S ASHTON T. RAF 22
F/S ASPIN V.E. RAF 20
SGT ASPLEN R.J. RAF 21
SGT ATKINS R.J. RCAF 27
SGT ATKINSON D. RAF 21
P/O ATKINSON J.L. RAF ?
SGT BAKE E. RAF ?
WO2 BAKER N. RCAF ?
SGT BAKER T.C. RAF 22
SGT BALDWIN J. RAF 19
SGT BARRATT W. RAF 19
F/O BARTON C.J. VC RAF 22
SGT BATCHOUSKI W.J. RAF ?
F/S BATES E. RAF 30
SGT BATES J.E. RAF 22
P/O BATTEN-SMITH J. DFC RAF 22
W/O BAXTER J.C. DFM RAF 23
F/S BAYLEY R.F. RAF 25
F/S BEACH R.B. RCAF 29
F/O BEAUMONT J.E. RAF 25
P/O BEER H.E. RAF 21
SGT BEILBY P.R. RAF ?
F/S BELYEA A.C. RCAF 21
SGT BERRY J.L.P. RCAF 21
F/S BICKFORD D.F. RAAF 20
SGT BILLSON D.R. RAF 20
SGT BINDER J.P.G. RAF 21
F/S BIRCH E. RAAF 21
S/L BISSETT J.M. DFM RCAF 23
F/S BLAKE W.E. RAF ?
SGT BLOOMFIELD D.B. RAF ?
SGT BOLTON J.S. RAF ?
SGT BOON R.J.A. RAF 20
F/O BOWLING H. RAF 32
SGT BOWYER N.H. DFM RAF ?
SGT BOYD F. RAF 19
F/S BOYLE B.P. RAAF 19
SGT BRADSHAW A.J. RCAF ?
F/S BRAY K. RAF 23
SGT BREAKER J. RAF 20
SGT BREAR J. RAF 22
F/S BRICE A. RAF 28
SGT BROAD L.H. RAF 19
F/S BROCKWAY G.W. RCAF ?
P/O BROOKS J. RAF 21
F/S BROUGHAM G.G. RAAF 21
SGT BROWN P.H. RAF ?
F/S BUCKINGHAM E.M. RAF ?
F/S BUCKLAND J.W.J. RAAF 20
F/O BULL A.D. RAF 23
WO2 BURKE D.W. RCAF 25
P/O BURNETT W.H. RAF 20
F/S BUTTERWORTH H.R. RAF 22
SGT BYATT C.V. RAF ?
SGT BYTH R. RAF ?
F/L CADMAN A.R. DFM RAF 24
F/L CAREY D.M. DFC RCAF 22
F/O CARLETON R.H. RCAF 22
SGT CARR J.H. RAF ?
F/S CATO R.L. RNZAF 20
P/O CHADWICK-BATES A.G.J. DFC RAAF 33
SGT CHAPPELL L.A. RAF ?
P/O CHARLESWORTH T.G.W. RAF ?
SGT CHASTON D.A. RAF 22
F/S CHURCHILL D.A. RAF ?
S/L CLACK K.A. DFM RAF 21
F/S CLAPHAM W.P. RAF ?
SGT CLARK H.A. RCAF 21
F/S CLARK R.L. RAAF 26
SGT CLARKSON R.L. RCAF ?
SGT CLAYTON A.J.H. RAF 19
SGT CLULOW G.F. RAF 20
SGT COFFEY H.M. RCAF 21
F/O COLHOUN W.A.L. RAF 25
SGT COLLIER R.A.J. RAF 19
SGT COLLINS G.R. RAF 20
F/O COLVILLE F. RAF ?
P/O COND R.H. RAF 21
SGT CONNELL T.S. RAF 20
F/L COOK A.J. RAF 32
SGT COOKE A. RAF 19
P/O CORBALLY J.C. RCAF 24
F/O CORCORAN M.M. RAAF 25
P/O COTTON-MINCHIN C.H. RAF 23
SGT COTTRELL N.R. RAF ?
SGT COUP J. RAF 32
F/L CRACKNELL W.C. RCAF 22
F/O CRAIG J. DFC RCAF 22
SGT CRAVEN L.J. RAF ?
P/O CROMBIE D.C.C. RAAF 29
SGT CRORY W. RAF 20
F/S CROSLAND A.H. RCAF 22
F/O CRUSE W.L. RCAF 21
WO2 CULLEN S.H. RCAF 24
F/O CUMMINS A.P. RAF 21
F/O CURRIE E.J. RAF 32
SGT CUTLER D.G. RAF 21
F/S DADDS K. RAF 21
SGT D’ARCY J.B. RAF ?
SGT DAVIS C.F.C. RAF ?
F/S DAWSON T. RAF ?
SGT De WITT A.M. RCAF 20
P/O DEATH A.H. RCAF 23
Lt DEPREZ R. Agent 23
F/O DEVON H.A. RAF ?
F/S DEVOY A.G. RCAF ?
F/L DICKINSON A. RAF 24
SGT DICKSON R. RAF ?
F/L DIGNEY R.J. RCAF 29
SGT DIXON L.H.J. RAF 20
P/O DIXON W.A. RCAF 21
F/O DOIG J. RCAF 31
P/O DONOVAN C.A. RAF 27
F/O DOYLE J.C.P. RAF 29
F/S DRAKE A.G. RAF 28
F/O DUCHARME J.J.A. RCAF 25
F/S DUFF T. RAF ?
SGT DYSON J.D. RAF ?
SGT EASTMAN R.A. RAF ?
SGT EDMONDSON N.T. RCAF 20
P/O EDWARDS D.H. RAF 28
SGT ELLAM K. RAF 22
SGT ELLICK M. RAF 22
P/O ELMY G. RAF 22
F/O ESPLEY E.C. RAF 22
SGT ESSON P.A. RAF 21
SGT EVANS L.J. RAF ?
F/S EVANS S. RAF 30
P/O EVANS T.A. RAF ?
SGT FARLEY A.W.V. RAF 26
F/S FARNELL E.A. RAF 28
F/S FENNELL R.B. RAF 22
SGT FERGUSON L.A. RCAF 28
F/O FERRIER J.S. RCAF 23
F/S FLETCHER T.S. RAF ?
SGT FORD W.V. RAF 22
F/S FOSTER C.G. RNZAF 23
SGT FOX C.E.R. RAF 22
SGT FRANCE W.E. RAF 23
F/O FRANCIS E. DFC RAF ?
SGT FRANCIS K.G. RAF 22
SGT FRITH S.P. RAF 19
P/O FROST C.A. RAF ?
F/O FROST H.C. RAF 25
SGT FULLER F.T. RAF 20
SGT FURLONG P. RAF 23
SGT GARDINER K. RAF 22
W/O GARDNER V. DFM RAF 30
F/S GARRATT J.C. RAF ?
SGT GAULD E.A. RAF 23
SGT GIBSON W.M. RAF ?
F/S GILL J.T. RAAF 27
Lt GIROULLE A. Agent ?
F/S GLASS S. RAF 23
F/O GLOVER H.D. RAF 22
SGT GODDARD A.A.F. RAF 21
W/O GODDARD O.J. RAAF 20
SGT GOODALL J.A. DFM RAF 28
SGT GOSKIRK J.D. RAF 20
F/O GOURDEAU A.E. RCAF ?
SGT GRANT J. RAF ?
F/S GREEN K.C. RAAF 26
SGT GREEN K.E. RAF 21
F/O GREENACRE G.C.G. RAF 22
SGT GREENFIELD R.E. RAF 20
F/S GREGORY F. RAF 31
F/S GROVES J.V. RAF 21
SGT GUTHRIE J.C. RAF 23
F/S GUY W.A. RAF 23
SGT GWYNNE W.J. RAF 21
SGT HADEN W. RAF ?
F/S HALL T.W.J. DFM RAF 21
P/O HALL W.C. RCAF ?
SGT HAMLIN J. RAF ?
P/O HAMMOND D.W. RCAF 22
F/S HARGREAVES C.H. RAAF 20
P/O HARNISH C.R. RCAF 26
SGT HARPER R.T. RAF 21
P/O HARRIS J.A. RCAF 29
SGT HARRIS J.F. RAF 21
F/S HARVEY D.V. RAAF 27
P/O HASTE J.A. RAAF 20
P/O HAWKES L.M. RCAF ?
SGT HAWKSWORTH F. RAF ?
P/O HAYCOCK R.C. RCAF 25
F/S HAYNES A. RAF 21
F/O HENRY J.W. RAF 28
SGT HEPWORTH H.L. RAF 22
P/O HERGOTT G.A. RCAF 20
F/S HEYS D.S. RAF 20
SGT HILDRETH J.A. RAF 34
F/S HILL E. RAF 23
S/L HILL F.P. DFC RAF ?
SGT HILL H.R. RAF 20
F/S HILL R.P.G. RAF 23
SGT HILLIS J. RAF 26
F/S HIRST T.J. RAF 22
F/S HOBBS F. RAF 21
SGT HOLLOWAY V.S. RAF 31
SGT HOOKER D.A. RAF 19
SGT HORSFIELD A. RAF ?
SGT HORTON R.A. RAF 23
F/O HOWARTH J. DFM RAF 23
F/S HOWES H.G. RAF 24
F/S HUGGETT N.G. RAAF 27
SGT HUGHES A.W. RAF 30
P/O HUGHES G.S. DFC RAAF 25
SGT HUGHES T. RAF ?
F/O HUTCHINSON M.G. RNZAF 28
F/L HYDE L.V. DFC RAF ?
P/O IRVING D.J. RAAF 26
SGT JACK P. RAF 27
F/O JAMES W.K. RAF 21
SGT JAMES W.N. RAF 20
SGT JAMIESON A.J.N. RAF 20
SGT JAMIESON J. RAF 22
F/S JARVIS E.F. RCAF 34
F/S JEFFERIES A.H. CGM RAF 21
SGT JEFFERY G.W. RAF ?
SGT JEFFERY K.A. RAF 21
SGT JENKINS W. RAF 19
SGT JOHNS R.G. RAF 29
CAPT JOHNSEN F. RNAF ?
P/O JOHNSON A.G.G. RAF ?
SGT JOHNSON A.J. RAF 21
SGT JOHNSON E.G. RAF ?
SGT JOHNSON R. RAF 31
SGT JOHNSTON A.O. RAF 29
WO2 JOHNSTON E.C. RCAF 21
F/O JOHNSTON J.G. RAF 28
W/O JOLLEY K.A. DFC RAAF 22
F/S JONES A.P. RAF 21
SGT JONES G. RAF 20
SGT JONES S. RAF ?
S/L JONES S.D. DFC RAF ?
SGT JONES W.D. RAF ?
SGT KARSMAN R.G. RNAF ?
SGT KASHER F. RAF ?
SGT KEIGHTLEY F. RAF 24
P/O KELLOW L.G. RAF 25
SGT KELLY R.F. RAF 20
SGT KENDRICK A.C. RAF 21
SGT KENDRICK H. RAF ?
SGT KENSETT J.H. RAF ?
F/S KING S.G.R. RAAF 23
F/O KRUGER C.W. RCAF ?
WO2 LABERGE D.J. RCAF ?
F/O LABOW J.I. RCAF 25
F/O LAIDLAW J.D. RCAF 20
S/L LAIRD G.J. DFC RCAF 29
SGT LAMBERT P.H. RAF ?
SGT LANAGHAN T. RAF 23
SGT LANE R.M. RAF 19
F/O LARSEN J.L. RAF 21
SGT LATHAM A. RAF 31
SGT LATHAM J. RCAF 19
F/O LAVERY T.W. RCAF 28
F/S LAWLEY R. RAF 21
SGT LAWRENCE H.R. RAF ?
SGT LAX D.G. RAF 20
F/S LEAHY F.G. RAF ?
P/O LEATHERDALE C.G. RCAF 23
F/O LECLAIRE J.J.H.G.G. RCAF 26
F/O LEGARD P.E. RAF 20
SGT LEGGETT A.E. RAF ?
SGT LIDDLE T.B. RAF 24
SGT LINDSAY W. RAF 21
F/O LING J.G.R. RAF 23
F/O LITCHFIELD R.F. RCAF 27
SGT LITTLEWOOD W.A. RAF 22
P/O LLEWELYN R.E. RAAF 28
SGT LOCKE R.E. RAF 20
F/S LOCKWOOD L. RAF ?
SGT LONGTON H. RAF 27
SGT LOVE J.W. RAF ?
SGT LOW G.J. RAF ?
SGT LYNCH P.J. RAF ?
F/L LYON C.A. RAF 20
F/O MacAULAY N.A. RCAF 26
SGT MacDONALD R.J. RAF ?
SGT MacKENZIE C.D.F. RAF 19
SGT MACKILLIGIN J.P. RAF 18
W/O MacLEOD E.R.F. RAAF 26
P/O MAJCHROWICZ F.R. RCAF ?
F/O MARRIAN N. RAF 24
SGT MARRIOTT K.R. RAF 19
F/O MARSHALL J.B. RAF ?
SGT MARTIN E. RAF 21
P/O MATHESON K.D. RNZAF 34
SGT MATON R.J. RAF 23
SGT MATTHEWS C.A.W. RAF 26
SGT MAUGHAN D. RAF 19
P/O MAW A.D. RCAF ?
SGT MAY J.A. RAF 21
F/S McA AIKMAN W. RAF 22
F/L McC HUDSON H. RCAF 26
P/O McC KIPPEN E. DFC RAF 23
F/S McCLEAN J.A. RAF 21
SGT McCLENAGHAN H.F. RAF 19
SGT McCONNELL S. RAF ?
F/S McCORMACK D.P. RAF 21
S/L McCREANOR M. RAF ?
F/S McCREARY J.D. RCAF 20
SGT McCULLY E. RAF 21
F/S McD RADLEY K. RAAF 21
F/L McFADDEN A.S. RAF 27
SGT McFADDEN T.C. RAF 21
SGT McGAHEY J. RAF ?
SGT McGHIE J. RAF ?
F/S McGILL A.H. RAF ?
SGT McINNES J.E. RCAF ?
P/O McINTOSH D.B. RAF ?
SGT McINTYRE D.V.N. RCAF 23
P/O McL AWREY D. DFC RCAF 23
SGT McL DONNELLY H. RAF 20
SGT McLENNAN A.W. RAF 23
F/S McNAY I.R. RCAF 29
SGT McNEIGHT H.G. RAF 21
F/O McPHEE W.N. RCAF 23
SGT MENARY B.H. RAF 22
SGT MENELL D.V. RAF 21
P/O MERRITT J.P. RCAF 24
S/L METZLER H.W. RCAF 30
SGT MILLS R.C. RAF 22
WO2 MILWARD L. RCAF ?
SGT MITCHELL P.L. RCAF 24
F/S MOGALKI R.E. RCAF 23
SGT MONK E.J.P. RAF 19
SGT MONKS H. RAF 23
W/O MOODY G.D. RAF 21
F/S MOONEY J.M. RAAF 22
F/S MOORE E.R. RAAF 21
W/O MOOSMAN M.C. RNZAF 23
SGT MORGAN A.R. RAF 23
SGT MORRIS J.W. RAF ?
P/O MORRISON J. DFC RAF 24
S/L MOSS E.H. DFC RAF 32
SGT MOSS L. RAF 19
SGT MOTTS G.E. RAF 20
P/O MOUCHET M.R.N. RCAF 26
SGT MOULDING E.R.R. RAF 20
P/O MOXEY W.G. RAAF 20
F/O MUNNERY N.G.P. RCAF 22
F/O MUNRO G.E. RCAF 25
W/O MURPHY J.A. RAAF 27
SGT MYLES G. RAF 35
P/O NARUM C.R. RCAF 23
F/S NEWMAN J.B. RAAF 20
SGT NEWMAN P. RAF ?
P/O NEWSTEAD F.L. RAF ?
SGT NICHOLL J. RAF 33
S/L NICHOLLS T.M. RAF 22
SGT NICHOLSON J.A. RAAF 19
SGT NORGROVE J. RAF 28
SGT NORRIS A.B. RAF 21
SGT NORTON L.V. RAF 20
F/S NOSKE J.A. RAAF 21
F/O NOWELL D.C. DFM RAF ?
SGT NUTLEY B. RAF 22
F/O O’BRIEN C.E. RCAF 28
SGT OGBORNE R.H.F. RAF 20
F/S O’NEILL W.P.H. RAF 21
SGT ORD J. RAF 21
P/O ORR H.F. RCAF 30
SGT PAGE H.F. RAF 21
F/L PALMER E.H. DFC RAF 20
P/O PANTON C.W. RAF 19
F/O PAQUIN F.F.F. RCAF 24
F/S PARKER R.H.G. RAAF 24
F/S PARKINSON C.R. RNZAF 25
SGT PARMENTER R.S. RAF 22
SGT PATEY F.B. RAF ?
P/O PATTISON A.B. RCAF 23
P/O PATTON A.A. RCAF 29
F/S PAXMAN L.G. RAAF 25
SGT PAXTON R.H. RAF 39
SGT PAYNE C.C. RAF 34
F/O PEAKE C.E. RAF 34
SGT PEALL L.W.A. RAF 23
F/S PEEL L.F. RAAF 22
P/O PEPPIATT F.W. RCAF ?
SGT PERCIVAL S. RAF 23
SGT PETTIS W.G.S. RAF 20
SGT PHILLIPS F. RAF 20
F/S PICKIN E. RAF 29
SGT PINKS A.E. RAF ?
SGT PITFIELD A.S. RAF 20
P/O PITMAN R.H. RAF 20
SGT POND E.R.W. RAF ?
SGT POOLE G.A. RAF 19
SGT PRADA I. RAF ?
P/O PREECE G.L. RCAF 19
SGT PREST W. RAF 28
SGT PRIOR J.E. RAF 21
F/L PROCTER G.A. RAF ?
F/S PUTT M.E. RAF 25
F/O PUVER J. RAF ?
P/O RATHWELL W.R. RCAF 19
SGT READ L.E. RAF 21
F/S REGAN W.T.A. RAF 21
F/O REID E.K. RCAF ?
SGT REYNOLDS G.T.W. RAF 21
SGT RHANEY F.V. RAF 19
WO2 RICE A.N. RCAF 20
SGT RICHARDSON H.W. RAF ?
SGT RICHARDSON J.F. RAF ?
P/O RIDDLE B.C. RNZAF 22
SGT ROBERTS C. RAF 22
SGT ROBERTS R.R. RAF 23
SGT ROBERTSON G.S. RAF ?
F/O ROBINSON L.E. RCAF 27
F/L ROBINSON M.U. RNZAF 26
SGT ROGERS T.J. RAF ?
P/O ROSE C.A. RAAF 27
F/S ROSS A.H. RAF 22
WO2 ROST W.F. RCAF ?
SGT ROWCLIFFE D. RAF 22
F/L ROWLANDS D.H. DFC RAF 23
P/O RUSH E.J. RCAF 22
W/O SALT B. RAF 23
F/S SANDERSON V.A. RAF 23
P/O SAPRUNOFF S. RCAF 22
F/S SARGENT W.E. RCAF ?
F/S SCHMIDT C.J. RAAF 32
SGT SCHOFIELD B.H. RAF 23
SGT SCOTT G.W. RAF ?
SGT SEHLIN D.L. RCAF 20
P/O SHANNON R.A. DFM RCAF 21
P/O SHEAHAN J.J.H. RCAF ?
SGT SHEPHERD J. RAF 19
WO2 SHOENER K.F. RCAF ?
F/S SHROPSHALL K.J. RAF 23
F/S SHUTTLE F.W. RAF 22
SGT SIDDALL D.F. RAF 22
SGT SILVER S.G. RAF ?
SGT SIMMONS W.A. RAF 19
SGT SIMPSON H. RAF 21
P/O SIMPSON L. RAF 33
SGT SKELCHER F.W. RAF 30
F/O SMART R.H. RAF 21
SGT SMEDMORE W.H.F. RAF 20
SGT SMITH D.L. RAF 21
P/O SMITH F.R. RAF 21
P/O SMITH L.H. RCAF 24
F/S SMITH L.S. RNZAF 26
F/S SMYTH J. RAF 29
F/O SOEDER W.E.P. RCAF 26
F/S SPARGO W.H. RAAF 20
F/S STAINTON A.J. RCAF 27
SGT STANTON F. RAF ?
F/O STEMBRIDGE M.M. RAF 21
SGT STEVENS J. RAF ?
SGT STEWART D. RAF 20
SGT STILLIARD M.M. RAF 19
SGT STORER F. RAF ?
SGT SUDDICK L.S. RAF 19
SGT SUMMERSCALE K.L. RAF ?
P/O SUTTON J. RAF 21
P/O TATE R.J. RAF 20
SGT TAYLOR R.F. RAF 20
F/L TAYLOR A.G. DFC RAF 26
F/O TAYLOR J.R. RCAF 23
P/O TAYLOR R. DFC RAF 20
SGT THIBEDEAU R.F. RCAF 23
F/S THOMAS E.R. RAF 26
F/S THOMAS R. RAF ?
F/S THOMPSON F. RAF 26
SGT THOMPSON J.S. RAF ?
F/S THOMPSON R.F. RAF ?
F/S THOMPSON T.W. RAF 32
SGT THOMSON G. RAF 22
P/O THOMSON J.H. DFM RAAF 28
SGT THOMSON R. RAF 23
F/O THOMSON R.K. RCAF ?
SGT THORNTON G.H. RAF 22
P/O THORNTON J.H. RCAF ?
F/O THORPE A. RAF 25
SGT THORPE G.R. RCAF 21
W/O TIMPERLEY R. RAF 26
SGT TINDAL R.W. RAF ?
F/S TIVEY G. RAF 22
WO2 TOPPING F.W. RCAF 23
F/O TOPPINGS I.J. RCAF 23
F/S TORBET G.D. RCAF 22
F/S TRAEGER E.H. RAAF 32
F/L TREVOR-ROPER R.A.D. DFC, DFM RAF 28
F/S TRODD G.W. RAF 22
SGT TYLER M.J. RAF 20
S/L UTZ E.A.G. DFC* RAAF 30
F/O UYEN W. RCAF 23
F/O VAN FLEET R.D. RCAF ?
F/S VAUGHAN J.G. RCAF 21
SGT VIVOUR B.B. RAF 24
SGT WALFORD L.E. RAF ?
SGT WALKER G.W. RAF 24
SGT WALKER P.F. RAF 21
SGT WALLIS N.L. RAF 19
SGT WANGLER A.L. RAF ?
F/S WARD K.W. RAAF 34
SGT WASH E.W. RAF 22
SGT WASHER L.G. RAF 24
F/L WEBB H.J.L. RAF 23
F/O WELLER R.J. DFM RAF 34
F/S WEST G.W. RAF 22
SGT WEST H. RAF 20
SGT WEVILL R.T. RAF 27
F/O WHITAKER R.A. RAF ?
F/S WHITBREAD L.J.H. RAF 20
F/O WHITE R.J. DFM RCAF 26
F/S WHITEHEAD A. RAF 28
SGT WHITFIELD E.N. RAF 20
SGT WHITLEY J.W. RAF 23
F/S WILKINS E. RAAF 20
F/S WILLIAMS A.H. RAAF 21
SGT WILLIAMS A.T. RAF 19
P/O WILLIAMS G.H. RAF ?
F/S WILSON A.H. RAAF 30
S/L WILSON C.H. DFC RAF 38
F/O WILSON J.H. RCAF 21
WO2 WILSON R.A. RCAF 22
W/O WOOD G.R.N. RAAF 31
SGT WOODS E.H. RAF 26
F/O WOODS F.W. RAF 28
SGT WORBOYS N. RAF 22
SGT WRIDE H. RAF 24
SGT WRIGHT H.A. RAF ?
SGT WYNESS L.H. RAF ?
F/O ZULAUF F.R. DFM RCAF ?

May they all rest in peace.

Per Ardua Ad Astra

LAC Norm Pringle was there… Redux

While I was searching for more information about Paulson, Manitoba, I found this article about Norm Pringle…

When Elvis addressed him, it was as ‘sir’

Special to The Globe and Mail

VICTORIA — Norm Pringle, who introduced rock ‘n’ roll to Victoria radio listeners, gained an audience with the genre’s king when Elvis Presley came to Vancouver to perform.

Pringle was one of three disc jockeys to question Presley at an informal press conference before the 1957 concert, an inquisition that found a new audience in recent years on the Internet.

The session was one of the highlights of a long broadcasting and recording career during which Pringle hired the actor Leslie Nielsen and made possible the radio debut of an unknown teenaged singer named Tommy Hunter.

Pringle, who died in California at 88, spun rock records for a teen audience as rock broke upon the culture, yet he was always by his own admission a big-band man.

Norman Ronald Pringle was born in Calgary on Dec. 9, 1923. His father worked as a pipefitter for the city. In 1941, Pringle abandoned his high school studies to enlist in the Royal Canadian Air Force. He was just 17.

He was assigned to the No. 13 Radio Unit at Amphitrite Point, near Ucluelet, one of a chain of radar stations along the isolated and sea-battered west coast of Vancouver Island. He and his comrades were to be vigilant for an invasion from the Japanese, although the greater enemy turned out to be boredom. Young Pringle got his first experience as an entertainer when the brass put him in charge of the unit’s movie projector, as well as the canteen, which was stocked with cold beer.

After the war, he returned to Calgary, and took a course in radio operations offered to veterans. The instruction was in the studios of CJCJ, where he was soon hired as host of the morning wake-up show before being promoted to chief announcer and program director.

One day, a tall man entered the studio after missing a streetcar. He had 20 minutes to kill, and asked for an audition. Pringle had him read an old newscast. “He sounded pretty good, so we hired him,” Pringle said. The recruit did not stay long, as he had aspirations of becoming a serious actor and, soon after, Leslie Nielsen left the station for acting school in Toronto.

Pringle hit the road himself, landing a job with CKMO in Vancouver in 1950 before joining CKDA in Victoria two years later. During a performance of a play at the Royal Theatre, he was impressed by a youth who sang the folk standard Barbara Allen. He went backstage to invite the 15-year-old to visit the station the next day. The singer showed up and was surprised to discover he was expected to perform live on air. He delivered a spontaneous 30-minute show, which launched the broadcast career of Tommy Hunter, Canada’s Country Gentleman, who announced his retirement from touring this year.

Pringle hosted radio programs from CKDA’s studios in the basement of the downtown Douglas Hotel (now the Hotel Rialto). He filled his playlist with the swinging sounds of Tommy Dorsey, Tex Beneke and Freddy Martin. One day, a record arrived from a new artist whose sound baffled the DJ. “When we first got his records, we didn’t know where to play him,” Pringle said. “I had a country show and a pop show. He played a guitar, so I put him on my country show.” That’s how the listening audience in Victoria got its introduction to Elvis Presley.

In July, 1957, Pringle booked the Capitol Theatre for the premiere of the Presley movie Loving You. Only girls were invited. The promotion was a smash.

Pringle escorted two busloads of excited Presley fans to Vancouver for a show at Empire Stadium on Aug. 31. On the day of the show, Pringle dressed in a suit jacket with thin lapels. He sported a sprightly bowtie and slicked back his hair. His wife, the former Elsie Morrell, made sure to wear her good jewellery.

Before the show, the singer submitted to a lengthy press conference, most of the questions posed by a trio of disc jockeys – Pringle, Red Robinson, the boyish announcer who would emcee the show, and Marke Raines, who later was elected as a member of Parliament. Presley politely answered every question, addressing his interrogators as “sir,” asking “beg your pardon?” when he didn’t hear. He also posed for photographs.

“He was a real charming guy,” Pringle said. “Pretty smart, too. He knew what to say. He had an answer for everything.”

The concert was pandemonium. Fans rushed the stage. The screaming from 22,000 in attendance drowned out the singer. The local press was harsh. A Vancouver Sun headline read, “Presley fans demented.” The Province newspaper’s music critic described the singer as dancing like “a frog injected with strychnine, with its legs shivering and jittering.” The Victoria Daily Times dismissed the teen sensation as “a sensuous slob.”

In Victoria, Pringle also hosted a weekly television show called House Party, during which local teenagers would lip-synch to the latest hits. One of the regulars, a 16-year-old named Jim Smith, could bump and grind in the Presley style, so Pringle had him hold a guitar while he mouthed the words to songs familiar to every teen. The newspapers dubbed the boy “Victoria’s EP” and the teen is regarded as the first of what would become an army of Elvis impersonators and tribute artists. Since Smith could neither sing nor play the guitar, his rock ‘n’ roll career was short-lived and he became a bus driver. He died in 2009.

Pringle moved to Hollywood in 1958, working as a sound mixer and audio engineer. Among the performers he recorded were Frank Sinatra, Eddie Cantor, the Beach Boys, the Tijuana Brass, and Sonny and Cher. He also worked on sound for such movies as All the President’s Men and Close Encounters of the Third Kind.

He enjoyed a regional hit on Vancouver Island with a Christmas novelty tune he wrote, Santa Got Stuck in the Chimney. All royalties went to charity. He never stopped writing songs.

In 2008, he returned to British Columbia for an induction ceremony at the Victoria Rock ‘n’ Roll Hall of Fame. He was cited as the city’s most influential broadcaster of his era.

Pringle died on March 17 at the Motion Picture Retirement Home at Calabasas, Calif. He leaves a son, a daughter and two grandchildren. He was predeceased by Elsie, his wife of 55 years, who died in 2009.

Pringle liked to tell a story about his wife and the snapshot of the couple flanking Elvis. She wanted to carry a print in her wallet, but the original was too large. Her solution was to trim the photo, leaving only her and Elvis.

 

Original post

I got an e-mail from Norm Pringle.

Norm Pringle was a LAC at No.7 Bombing and Gunnery School.

It took him 67 years to hear from someone who knew something about No. 7 B&G in Paulson, Manitoba.

I have been only waiting since 2010 to meet someone who had met Eugene Gagnon when he was a staff pilot over there.


Flight Sergeant Eugene Gagnon

He most certainly met Eugene Gagnon when he was a dispatcher.

LAC Norm Pringle

This was on  Norm Pringle’s Website…

WORLD WAR TWO A FOUR YEAR PARTY FOR CPL NORM PRINGLE

As told to: Hobart K. Kistler, Sept. 2010 – (69 years later)
By: Norm “Crash” Pringle

A native of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, Mr. Pringle was born there on December 9, 1923. “I flunked out of the first grade of high school,” he says, “and the chance to get a job was rare. Well, my dad had been in World War I, and he always said I’d be in the next one to come around.”

With the Dominion of Canada involved in the Second World War since 1939, Mr. Pringle was well aware that there was a war on. American ‘bush pilots’, eager to get in on the fighting, were a common sight at airfields along the Canadian border; many Canadian men had already joined up as well. As such, in the summer of 1941, Mr. Pringle determined to join the Royal Canadian Air Force. “It was more to get paid and get three squares a day than out of patriotism,” he remarks of his decision to enlist.

Mr. Pringle was first ordered to report to #2 Manning Depot, Winnipeg, Manitoba. The 1,000-mile journey from Alberta was quite an adventure for a seventeen-year-old who had never strayed far from home. For a week, “they sorted things out,” Mr. Pringle remembers. “It was basic training in a sense, but nothing really serious. The British Commonwealth Air Training Plan was just getting underway, and they needed people to man the training facilities. Since I had no established trade, they asked me if I knew how to work with Railroad Time. I said ‘yes’, and so they made me a dispatcher.”

Mr. Pringle was assigned to duty at #7 Bombing and Gunnery School, at Paulson, Manitoba. The airfield serviced about 25 aircraft which were used by pilots and airmen to acquire the skills necessary for combat. “A plane would be sent up, flying a sort of drogue 600 yards behind, and the practicing gunners tried to shoot that target.” Mr. Pringle’s work involved mainly “assigning the pilots and gunners to planes, and getting the necessary signatures to see that the towing had been serviced. It was a big responsibility for a kid without a high school diploma.” He remained at #7 for nearly three years, facilitating the training of numerous pilots and gunners, perhaps half of whom were Americans. “It was all very much like the motion picture Captains of the Clouds,” he observes. (The movie referenced was a 1942 film starring James Cagney as a middle aged ‘bush pilot’ training at a BCATP base.)

“It was a good assignment,” Mr. Pringle says of his time at #7. “We didn’t have much to do, except go into this little town (Dauphin) and go to dances and get drunk. The men often sang songs, such as the British servicemen’s favorite, Bless ‘Em All, into which Mr. Pringle admits he and his cohorts often substituted a more colorful verb for ‘bless’! The chorus went:

Bless ’em all, bless ’em all
The long and the short and the tall
Bless all the sergeants and W.O. Ones
Bless all the corp’rals and their blinking sons
For we’re saying good-bye to them all
As back to their billets they crawl
You’ll get no promotion this side of the ocean
So cheer up my lads Bless ’em all!

One day an aviator accidentally walked into a spinning propeller directly in front of Mr. Pringle’s office. The man was killed instantly, reminding the men that although not on the front lines, no one was guaranteed to come out of the war alive. For Mr. Pringle, another accident nearly cost him his life.

“We had a kid with appendicitis who needed to be flown down to Winnipeg for surgery,” he relates. “Since I had to dispatch the plane, I thought, ‘I’ll take a ride myself.’ In the end there were about seven or eight people jammed into that little Cessna; it was a terrible day, snowing very hard.” Things didn’t really start to go sour until the plane was in transit to Winnipeg. Mr. Pringle remembers exactly what transpired that day: “The pilot lost his way; he couldn’t find the airport in all that snow. To make matters worse, we were running out of gas just flying around in circles trying to find the airport. Finally, he saw it, but as we were getting ready to land, the engine conked out. The pilot said, ‘Hang on boys; we’re gonna make a rough landing!’. We crashed on a roadway near the airport, and the plane ended up upside down. We got out of the wreck ran like hell to get away before the fuel caught on fire and it exploded. Just then, we realized that the patient, who had been the only one wearing a seatbelt, was still in the plane. We ran back and found him hanging upside down inside. When we unhooked him he fell to the bottom of the plane, and we got him out. Amazingly, no one was hurt except one guy who had gotten the hook on his parachute jammed into his head; it was bleeding all over, bud he didn’t die. Fortunately the ground crew from the airport had seen us go down, and they were there to help us.” Resultant from his surviving the wreck, Mr. Pringle was given the nickname ‘Crash’ Pringle, an appellation that has stuck with him for over 65 years.

Mr. Pringle returned to duty at #7 for a time, before being ordered to “a secret new radar station being established at Spring Cove on Vancouver Island. It was in the middle of nowhere, and I didn’t even know what radar was, but I thought it was rather like going on a vacation to the seashore!

“I don’t know why they sent me, a dispatcher, to a base with no planes,” he continues, “and they wouldn’t tell us anything about the radar, so I had to get creative to find a job for myself. The base had no PX (Post Exchange) or even anything where the 100 guys there could buy cokes or cigarettes, so I started a canteen. I sold beer, cigarettes, coke—whatever they wanted, and since I knew how to run a 16mm movie projector, I made up a little theater and showed one movie a week.

“There wasn’t much else to do on that rugged coast,” Mr. Pringle explains. “Sometimes we went on hikes, but it rained a lot, and there was only one boat a week to the fishing village of Ucluelet, where we got supplies. Oh, and they had a motor transport garage on the post, but seeing as there were no roads and they only had one truck, there wasn’t much reason for it. That just goes to show how the military wastes a lot of resources!”
Adjacent to the outpost was a group of abandoned houses that had been inhabited by Japanese fishermen before the war; however, as in America, they were quickly removed to internment camps following Pearl Harbor. The extra housing allowed for the wives of several of the soldiers to travel to Vancouver and stay near their husbands.

In the war’s final year, Mr. Pringle was sent up to Port Hardy, on the island’s northern end, where he was stationed for two months before the imminent conclusion of hostilities precipitated another transfer to #2 Wireless School in his hometown of Calgary. There, as at Spring Cove, he showed movies at the base’s PX.

Just prior to VJ Day, Cpl. Pringle was discharged and allowed to return home, which he did. Of his activities after the war, he says, “In those days you were allowed to wear your uniform for a year after you were discharged, so I put mine back on and hitchhiked to Hollywood. It was so easy, being in uniform; everybody treated me very well. The Hollywood USO Canteen put me up for a month, while I hobnobbed with all kinds of famous people. Among others, I met (then-Lt. Col.) Jack Warner, of WarnerBrothers, who later became my boss.

Mr. Pringle returned to Calgary to work as a radio announcer for station CJCJ. One day a man walked in and asked if there was an opening for an announcer. Mr. Pringle interviewed the man and gave him a job. The man’s name was Leslie Nielsen, and he was very glad to have been given a start in the entertainment business by a fellow RCAF veteran. Mr. Pringle later worked as an audio engineer in Hollywood, on movies and television shows such as The Waltons. He retired in 1983. As to his days in the RCAF, he remarks that “I can’t say I won the war; it was just one big party really (running the canteen at Spring Cove). I never wanted a rifle in my hands, so I guess you might call me ‘chicken’, but I feel that I did my part.”

67 years later, Norm is doing his part in paying homage to these brave men.

 

HMCS St. Croix – Survivor’s Account

I wrote this draft post in September 2009, but I never got around to post it before today.

Full speed ahead!

hmcs-st-croix

The sole survivor of the St. Croix, Stoker W. A. Fisher, told his story in a newspaper account:

(Winnipeg Free Press 1 October 1943)

Survivor Of St. Croix Tells Of Destruction

By LLEWELLYN McKENZIE

New York, Oct. 1 (Special) The sole survivor of a torpedo attack in the Atlantic, which claimed the lives of 146 Canadian seamen in the sinking of the Canadian destroyer St. Croix during a 10-day running fight with a pack of enemy U-boats, told his story today. He is William Allan Fisher, 23, former Turner Valley, Alberta, oil driller.

Able Seaman Fisher told his story from a British naval receiving station in Brooklyn. He was brought there in a merchant ship which rescued him after his first first rescue ship was sent to the bottom. Fisher is waiting a 30-day leave which will him back to his 20-year old wife, Marie Louise, in Black Diamond, Alberta. His left foot was hurt during the sea battle.

“We were part of an escort detailed to a large convoy,” Stoker W. A. Fisher related. “We received a signal that submarines were about. We stayed astern of the convoy, but on September 20, we had to come up and take on oil from a tanker in the convoy. On our way back to our position we saw a Canadian four-motored Liberator signalling us. We were told that they had spotted a submarine and dropped depth charges. We flashed two boilers and made for the spot at 24 knots. As we neared, we had to reduce speed. As we slowed up we were hit in the screws.” Fisher said there was no panic and no one thought of abandoning ship. “But in two minutes another torpedo struck, this time near the mess deck, and water began to pour in,” he went on. “The captain, Lieutenant Commander Dobson, then issued orders to abandon ship.” That was just before 8 o’clock and dusk was gathering and a slight wind blew even though the sea was calm.

Some men were injured by the explosions which followed the torpedoes, some were burned and cut. They were put in the motor launch before it was lowered over the side. The motor boat pulled away. Meanwhile attempts were made to lower a 60-passenger oar-driven whaler. Two attempts resulted in two large holes being gouged into the bottom of the whaler. Carley floats were dumped over the side and the men began jumping into the water. “No one seemed worried then,” Fisher related. “Many of the crew laughed that they would be due for 29 day survivors’ leave.” The rowboat pulled away from the sinking destroyer, and picked men out of the water. “Even then I thought the ship would be saved,” Fisher said. “Then I saw the captain dive off the boat. I knew everyone was off then and that the captain had given up hope.”

As Lieutenant Commander Dobson headed for the motor boat, he saw two men struggling in the water. He towed them to Carley floats and then made for the rowboat. Fisher was in charge of the motor boat. “No one in the boats died during the night,” the survivor went on. “It was morning that everything happened. Men on the Carley floats insisted on getting into the rowboat. As the men got in. it settled lower in the water. Just before the rescue ship came along, it sank. The whaler did not have any injured men aboard. They were oil-grimed and cold. I saw men who were tough, big men. They hung out all night in the hope a boat would pick them up. Then when the boat did not come into view they died. I guess they couldn’t hang out any longer. We dropped them into the sea.”

Sixty men were still alive on the whaler. The ship which headed to their rescue was the Royal Navy frigate ITCHEN, completed last September. As the frigate steamed through the lifting morning mist, the men in the whaler received the signal that the ITCHEN would come directly to their rescue. As the ITCHEN neared, a torpedo was seen to explode 30 yards to her stern. A message was flashed to the Polyanthus, a corvette of the Flower class, to come out of the convoy escort and circle the ITCHEN while the men were taken aboard. “The Polyanthus was just coming in and she was struck,” Fisher said. “I guess she went down in about 10 minutes. We rescued 10 men in our whaler. The ITCHEN headed for the convoy,” Fisher went on. “Some of us were given jobs to do. I did watch. On September 2, two days after we were rescued, we were ordered to our action stations because submarines were around. We had three orders. The first started at 6 at night. There was another one at 7 and again at 9. At 9 o’clock I was standing beside the funnel when a torpedo struck. I was knocked 30 feet and landed against a gun platform. As I crawled toward the rail I kept yelling for my pal, Stoker Rod MacKenzie, of Sydney. MacKenzie had been torpedoed six times before. He didn’t answer and I jumped over the side. As I hit the water there was another explosion and I felt that my stomach was being squeezed through my ears. The water just cracked,” said Fisher. When he reached down to tug off his boots, his left boot was missing. It had been blown off. Fisher grabbed a board and looked to see other men jumping from the ship. Most of them drowned. A Carley float drifted by and Fisher jumped on. During the night others jumped on, but most of them died.

©1996-2004 – The Naval Museum of Manitoba – 1 Navy Way – Winnipeg Manitoba – R3C 4J7