I wrote about him in this article.
Someone wrote a comment on my French blog Nos ancêtres…
He is my brother. I have more info for your site.
Next time, I will tell you all about Eddy and Eddy’s brother.
I wanted to go to Bromptonville and visit Mario Hains and Marcel Bergeron…
I went to see Mario first. He was the one who gave me a lead in finding Eugène Gagnon the French-Canadian Mosquito pilot.
Speaking of lead…
This lead was not what it seemed. This Mosquito was not at Bromptonville.
Mario showed me the original.
What is on the back is …
Mario told me someone gave this picture to his father.
Eugène can’t be the pilot of this particular Mosquito since he was stationed in Manitoba and was not a member of Ferry Command.
My hypothesis was wrong from the start.
This is the list of the missions.
This list is part of the documents I got from the Canadian Archives.
We can see all his missions and the one on March 27, 1945 where he mined the Elbe River. He got his DFC when he came back on one engine.
Eugène was Marcel’s hero. Marcel is 82 and Eugène is still his hero.
Marcel had a lot of things to share with me.
I will share them with you next time.
I know this because I had access to his file.
It says so on the second page of his enrolment form.
Click to enlarge
Click to enlarge
So with this information, I browsed through this…
and I found this…
Click to enlarge
Eugène is on the right in the picture next to the goaler AC2 Manson.
If you want to learn more about the Paulson Post, click here.
It’s like moving back in time.
RCAF Station Paulson was home to No. 7 Bombing & Gunnery School during the Second World War.
Eugène Gagnon, a French-Canadian Mosquito pilot, was stationned there in 1942 and 1943 where he was a Staff Pilot for 18 months.
Before going to Manitoba, he had graduated from No. 6 SFTS in Dunnville, Ontario on 24 April 1942.
I talked about him in these two articles.
Eugène Gagnon DFC
GAGNON, F/L Joseph Achille Eugene (J27002)
– Distinguished Flying Cross
– No.23 Squadron
– Award effective 22 May 1945 as per London Gazette of that date and AFRO 1147/45 dated 13 July 1945.
Born 1921; home in Bromptonville, Quebec. Enlisted Montreal 7 February 1941. Commissioned 1942. Trained at No.1 ITS (graduated 3 July 1941), No.10 EFTS (graduated 21 January 1942) and No.6 SFTS (graduated 24 April 1942).
Since joining his squadron in December 1944, this officer has completed many sorties against a variety of targets. His determination has been outstanding and his persistent attacks on enemy locomotives, rolling stock and road transport have been most successful.
One night in March 1945, he was detailed on a minelaying mission in a section of the Elbe River. On the outward journey the starboard engine developed trouble but despite this he went on to accomplish his task in the face of heavy enemy fire. On the return journey the starboard engine became completely unserviceable. Height could not be maintained and the aircraft was forced down to 400 feet, becoming extremely difficult to control. Displaying brilliant airmanship and determination, Flight Lieutenant Gagnon made a successful landing at base without injury to his crew and with but slight damage to the aircraft. His devotion to duty has been most notable.
This is most probably the first plane he flew when he learned to fly back in 1942.
This painting is from Andrew Kindret.
Andrew Kindret (1922-1992) joined the Royal Canadian Air Force in 1941. While serving as an air-gunner with No. 419 Squadron, his Lancaster was set on fire by enemy anti-aircraft fire over the German city of Dortmund. P/O Kindret was ordered to abandon the aircraft that exploded shortly after his parachute opened. He was captured and spent the remainder of the war as a P.O.W.
Andrew Kindret’s paintings are in this museum in Alberta.
If you live close by, pay them a visit.
RCAF Station Paulson, Manitoba
June 1941. Location of No. 7 Bombing and Gunnery School.
October 1942. Closure.
See you in 1943 in Manitoba.
Eugène Gagnon had some of his pilot training in Dunnville, Ontario.
He got his wings there on April 24, 1942. Then he moved to Paulson, Manitoba to become a Staff Pilot.
Brief History of No. 6 SFTS
The Dunnville flying school, No. 6 SFTS, opened on November 25th 1940; one of the 28 Service Flying Training Schools constructed in Canada under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan.
The base had five hangers, three double runways, 50 H-huts, a drill hall, canteen, fire hall and other buildings.
Students attending the school had previously completed an eight week elementary course at a Flying Training School. After an additional 12 – 16 weeks at Dunnville, they would earn their wings.
The first group of 50 graduates received their wings on February 10th 1941. While the base was in operation it graduated a total of 2436 pilots. Students came from New Zealand, Australia, Great Britain, Canada and the United States.
By January of 1942 personnel at the station included 87 officers, 1027 airmen and 52 civilians. Training aircraft included 46 Yales and 49 Harvards. You can imagine what a busy place the base was. During four years of operation there were 47 casualties, with six Yales and 26 Harvards destroyed in accidents.
The station was officially closed on December 1st 1944. It was maintained for several years and eventually sold to be operated as a turkey farm. In 1998 the station was bought by three local businessmen.
I found on the Internet that the cadets were flying Yale and Harvard.
Next time, we go to Paulson, Manitoba.
Eugène Gagnon, the French-Canadian Mosquito pilot who served in Europe from December 1944 through May 1945, was stationned there in 1942.
Eugène Gagnon DFC
Application form for training and Employment in RCAF
Eugène Gagnon arrived in Paulson, Manitoba, on May 9, 1942 from No. 6 SFTS in Dunnville, Ontario.
He became a Staff Pilot.
In this document we see what airplane he flew.
WWII Training Schools
During WWII, young airmen from the Commonwealth flew over the Dauphin area while training for the war effort.
On February 27, 1941, training commenced at No.10 S.F.T.S (Service Flight Training School) located at the present day Lt. Colonel W.G. Barker V.C. Airport, as well as at the No.1 and No.2 Relief Fields: No.1 “North Junction” was located on Highway 362, six kilometres north of Dauphin, while No.2 “Valley River R.C.A.F.” was situated six kilometers west on gravel road 151.
Here, the student pilots practiced touchdowns and take-offs on the grass runways.
The No.7 Bombing and Gunnery School opened on June 24, 1941 at Paulson, located 13 kilometres east of Dauphin on Highway 20. Because of its proximity, Lake Dauphin was used as a practice bombing target range, where there are still a few visible remains of a once-thriving base.
There were many crashes in the area and over 50 men lost their lives. Some of the airmen, from Britain, New Zealand and Australia, are buried at the Riverside Cemetery in Dauphin.
Eugène must have met a lot of airmen in his stay in Paulson, Manitoba.
This is why I am posting this article.
We never know.
We might get information and even pictures from that era.
If you know someone who was there, then please send me an e-mail by clicking here.
Next time we will talk about airplanes.
This is taken from this Website…
On the night of Dec. 2/3, 1943, 458 bomber aircraft took off from their bases in fog-shrouded England heading for Berlin.
Although most of Canadian 6 Group’s bomber force was grounded that night by the fog, thirty-five of these were Canadian bombers.
A baptism of fire had followed the formation of 6 Group in October of 1942 and the young, inexperienced Canadians had paid a terrible cost for what seemed like a very long time.
But by now, over a year later, they were a cohesive, well-oiled machine, on their way to fulfilling “Bomber” Harris’ later tribute to the force as “among the very best”.
Of the thirty-five Canadian bombers which took off on that December evening, eight (6 percent) tuned back, almost half as many Canadian craft than the ten percent of the whole force which would not fly to the target that night.
Among the Canadian aircraft approaching Berlin in the now-thinning cloud, was “P” Peter DS707, a Lancaster B Mk. II of 426 “Thunderbird” Squadron, out of Dishforth, Yorkshire, commanded by the “Berlin” Kid, Roger Coulombe.
As they approached the target, the sky ahead was filled with hundreds of probing, sabers of light as the searchlights of Berlin, like the appendages of some mythic deep-water monster, filtered the dark sky for their prey. To be surrounded by these searching shafts was unnerving at the best of times, but to be captured in their grip was a fate devoutly to be avoided, as pilot Coulombe was soon to discover for himself.
Suddenly his Lancaster was caught in the white hot-grip of sixty or seventy searchlights.
For what seemed like an eternity the crew held its collective breath as the pilot threw the big plane violently around the sky. Coulombe called on everything he knew -and some things he didn’t-about flying.
But “P” Peter was a magnet, coned in the hot spot.
Desperate to evade the lights, Coulombe put the big Lancaster into a steep dive, soon exceeding the 350-mph dive-limit speed at 450 mph.
At the last moment, feet on the instrument panel, he muscled the shuddering bomber out of its death-defying dive and slipped anonymously into the comforting darkness, away from the insidious searchlights.
Several further incidents, including various attacks by Ju 88 and Me 109 night fighters would leave the crew breathless and the aircraft in deep trouble, with damage to the port-inner engine, radio, port tire, port outer fuel tank and the hydraulic system.
On the way home, the starboard outer engine quit, and the prop was feathered.
Then, over the cold North Sea, the starboard inner began to lose power.
It didn’t look good as the crippled ship lost altitude. Thoughts of ditching crossed everyone’s mind.
A Mayday was called as they approached the friendly shores of home, and almost immediately a welcome sight greeted the exhausted crew. Bright lights illuminated the runway of an American B-17 base. It was just within reach.
Coulombe set her down as gently as possible on one wheel, and all aboard walked away. Although seriously damaged, “P” Peter had brought them back, safely.
They discovered the next morning her main spar had been smashed through by cannon fire.
Their story was repeated hundreds of times through the war.
Coulombe’s aircraft was, in the Lancaster tradition, a supreme bomb truck, the only aircraft in the world at that time which were able to carry the legendary 12,000 lb. Tallboy and even the 20,000 lb. Grand Slam. Carrying a crew of seven, and armed with eight 0.303 in. machine guns in three power-operated turrets, the graceful Avro Lancaster carved out a place in history and the hearts of almost all who flew and flew in her.
For a design which originated in 1936, the Lancaster’s abilities proved truly amazing.
Tough and able to absorb heavy battle damage, she was simple to construct, easy to repair, and uncomplicated enough to build in quantity. In fact, over 7000 were built, equipping 67% of Bomber Command in 1945. Many remained in front line service well after the war. The RCAF flew Lancaster Xs on maritime patrol until 1965, and a direct descendant of the Lancaster, the Shackleton, remained in service in the RAF until 1982.
The Lancaster developed from a fine airframe which had unfortunately been mated with promising but under-developed engines. First flown in July of 1939, the twin-engined Avro 679 Manchester was doomed from the start by its new but entirely unproven, and, as it turned out, unreliable Roll-Royce 24-cylinder, X-form Vulture engines. Fortunately, the decision was made not to scrap the whole project but to redesign the center wing sections to receive four new Rolls-Royce Merlins, engines which are known to have saved more than one aircraft from mediocrity.
The result was an aircraft with a twelve-foot increase in wing span married to virtually the same Manchester fuselage. It was to prove a very capable bomber of outstanding performance and was placed immediately into large-scale production. Squadrons began receiving the new bomber in early 1942, and first deployment sent some Lancasters on a rather foolhardy daylight raid on April 17 of that year.
Over the course of the war, the Lancaster proved its worth, going on to achieve its enviable record as a major force in the final outcome. It was so good that few major modifications were required. Most alterations which were recognized in new marks, reflected changes in engine. For example, a batch of 300 was built as Mk. IIs with powerful Bristol Hercules radial engines.
Some airframe modifications allowed the Lanc to carry unique ordinance on special missions. These included the spinning skip-bombs used by No.617 Squadron RAF Lancasters, deployed on the famous “Dambuster” raid and the massive 22,000 lb. earthquake bombs carried internally in a bulging bomb bay against submarine pens and underground installations. Used as the standard Allied night bomber, along with the Handley Page Halifax, the Lancaster carried out 156,000 sorties delivering more than 600,000 tons of bombs during World War II.
The Avro Lancaster heavy bomber was undoubtedly Great Britain’s most consequential bomber of World War II. Unknown to many however, what were considered the best of the breed were produced in Canada at Victory Aircraft, Malton Ontario. The Canadian-built Mk.X represented, at the time, a significant achievement for Canada’s domestic aviation industry, and remains today as a high point in its aviation history.
In December, 1941, a contract was awarded to a Canadian firm to build Lancasters. The Canadian version, designated Mk.X, was a modified British Mk. III using American-built Packard Merlins. Small but significant modifications were made over the length of the contract which eventually saw 422 Canadian Lancs constructed. Early production models, received enthusiastically by the British Ministry of Aircraft production as notably well finished and equipped, were held up to domestic British manufacturers as a model of good aircraft construction. The British were impressed – even somewhat surprised – at the quality of the Canadian Lancaster Xs which quickly acquired the reputation as the best Lanc of the War.
Had the Lancaster not successfully sprung phoenix-like from the ashes of the failed Manchester, it could be argued that the course of the war might have been very different. Bombing policy might have been far less easily defended without the success of this great aircraft. Representing the dividing line between the old view of the bomber as the slow, heavily armed battleship, brazenly making its raids in broad daylight, the Lancaster pointed the way to the new view of the stealthy, if vulnerable, intruder. However, even the Lancaster proved the early hopes of bomber advocates to be wildly exaggerated. It also confirmed that with modified expectations and tactics, in concert with new advances in electronics and weaponry, like the spinning bombs, the heavy bomber was to play an important role during the war and well into the future.
The superlative Canadian-built Lancaster Xs served with various squadrons of RCAF 6 Group participating in the Battle of Berlin, the Battle of Normandy, (before and after D-Day), and in mine-laying operations. The most famous Mk X was KB726 (VRA) of No.419 RCAF Squadron in which P/O Andrew Mynarski won the Victoria Cross after dying in the attempt to save a trapped tail-gunner as his Lancaster burned in the air. Another Canadian-made Mk X , FM213, long-time gate sentinel at the former British Commonwealth Air Training Base at present-day Goderich Airport in Ontario, has since been reborn in the collection of the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum at Hamilton Ontario, as one of only two flying Lancasters left in the world.
The museum has painted this aircraft in the markings of VRA as a memorial to Mynarski. When featured at air shows, she regularly brings tears to the eyes of those lucky enough to see her fly, and especially to the older eyes of those who flew this legend of an aircraft in that bygone but not forgotten time. My painting THE LONG ROAD HOME pays tribute to a great aircraft, the Canadian-built Lancaster Mk X, and all those who served in and maintained them.
NOTE: The Roger Coulombe anecdote is from Spencer Dunmore and William Carter’s REAP THE WHIRLWIND; The Untold Story of 6 Group, Canada’s Bomber Force of World War II… McClelland & Stewart 1991
Roger Coulombe was, during the World War II, pilot of Lancaster bombers within 426 (Thunderbird) Squadron.
Statistically, the chances of bomber crews completing their operational tour of 30 missions were only of one out of three. After the war, Sir Arthur Harris, head of Bomber Command, admitted: “They were virtually – and they knew it only too well – condemned to death, and living on borrowed time”.
Coulombe completed 30 missions over Germany, including a raid on Nuremberg from which 96 Allied bombers did not return. Impressively, Coulombe holds the record among all Allied airmen for the biggest number of raids on the capital Berlin, recognized as the city the most difficult to attack because of its tremendous anti-aircraft defence and of its distance right in the heart of enemy territory.
A raid on Berlin constituted a major fulfillment.
Coulombe accomplished twelve!
This exploit gave him the nickname “Berlin Kid”. Coulombe’s log appears as a chronicle to an endless journey through hell, underlining “extremely heavy air defenses in thousands of ack-ack guns and searchlights, its many hundred night fighters to defend [Berlin]”.
Attacked one night relentlessly by a JU88 and a FW190, Coulombe writes:
“I had seen the face of the German pilot so well during those few seconds, that I would have been able to recognize him had I seen him on the ground the next morning”.
Riddled with bullets, the Lancaster managed nevertheless to return to its base on one and a half engine, landing on a single main wheel! In an almost routine way, Coulombe had to begin spiraling evasive manoeuvres and vertiginous dives, at the helm of his heavy four-engined aircraft when facing fast fighter planes. The panic sometimes overtook his crew, but Coulombe always returned them safely to base.
After his operational tour, Coulombe became a flight instructor, obtaining the higher A2 rank and serving as Master-pilot within the No 22 Operational Training Unit. Volunteer for the Pacific Front, the war ended before his transfer to Asia.
After the war, Coulombe embraced a brilliant career in dentistry. By his brilliance, Roger Coulombe symbolized the anonymous effort of these thousands of airmen of Bomber Command, from which too many did not come back.
Inducted into the Hall of Fame on November 26th 2003.
Lieutenant Rousseau never completed his mission.
Claude Rousseau went to France to find out what had happen to his two brothers.
This is a newspaper article written in December 1945.
Philippe died two hours after his parachute drop. His platoon was caught in a cross fire in Gonneville-sur-Mer.
A farmer found him in a ditch the next morning.
Maurice died on September 17, 1944 in Lorraine against overwhelming odds.
Having been parachuted away from the designated DZ did not discourage him because he had been parachuted closer to his objective than expected. Lieutenant Rousseau took off immediately in the direction of Dozulé to complete his mission with the four soldiers he had met.
Two hours later, the five men were caught in a cross fire with German soldiers and lieutenant Rousseau and Oxtoby one the soldier died instantly.
“It is very likely Lieutenant Rousseau would not have been killed if he had taken the usual place as officer of his rank would do. But as usual, he took care of his men first and he was leading them in front of the small squad” recalls Irwin Willsey one of the four soldier.
Bullets struck Lieutenant Rousseau’s phosphorus grenades he was carrying on his belt and they burst into flames.
However, opinions differ if he died of burns or from enemy shots. Two of the soldiers accompanying him managed to escape, then the third was wounded and taken prisoner soon afterwards.
“Lieutenant Rousseau was a true soldier, a man of honour, and well-disciplined and I am convinced that he made the impossible to carry out his mission on Dozulé.” If he did not have this order, it would have remained in the area to find the rest of his group.
Corporal Anderson (Gonneville-sur-Mer 1939-1944)
It is therefore unclear if Lieutenant Rousseau was able to complete his mission.
Corporal Anderson said that Rousseau died on June 6, but he was not with him because they had been separated from the start.
I found a Website. It is about la commune de Dozulé in France and a section is dedicated to Dozulé and the war.
I have written an e-mail to the Town Hall.
I have yet to get a response.